Sight Search

The Ocean Less Traveled

Each stranded marine mammal is a treasure trove of scientific information that provides otherwise unobtainable data about the health of wild dolphin stocks. A necropsy helps determine the cause of death and life history data.
Text By Juli D. Goldstein, DVM; photos by Stephen McCulloch

Life of a marine mammal veterinarian

TALK TO ANY HUMAN UNDER THE AGE OF 13, and they have probably been asked, “What do you want to be when you grow up?” I was just 3 years old when I knew I wanted to be a veterinarian. Growing up on coasts — first Cape Cod, Massachusetts, and then Southeast Florida — I was practically raised by the Atlantic Ocean’s starfish, seahorses, sea turtle hatchlings, and so many other ocean creatures that have been my friends and confidants. I have since dedicated my life to conserving, protecting, and loving these animals. As there are few guidebooks on caring for sea creatures, my decades-long journey as a marine mammal veterinarian has been far from ordinary.

The ocean’s soothing sounds can easily lull us into serenity, but a community in dire need of conservation, research, and protection lies below the surface. The ocean’s health is in crisis, and marine mammals are the proverbial canary in the coal mine. I have traveled the world to work with a variety of marine mammals. The following are some highlights and examples of the many species, situations, and places I have been called to assess, care for, and treat marine mammals.
Related to elephants, manatees suffer from a host of human threats, including boat hits, entanglement in fishing lines, and a loss of habitat. The U.S. Geological Survey and National Park Service help conserve this threatened species by tagging and monitoring them during annual health assessments.
A TALE OF TWO SPERM WHALES
We are used to swimming with numerous species of tropical fish, sharks, and dolphins while working and playing in the Florida Keys’ turquoise waters. A few miles offshore, however, the Gulf Stream serves as a highway for a large variety of pelagic species that travel immense distances, including sperm whales. Until recently, Moby-Dick was my best knowledge of these leviathans.

Over the past 20 years there have been no recorded sperm whale beachings or strandings in the Florida Keys, so it was surprising to receive a call from a Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission (FWC) officer saying that a baby sperm whale was swimming alongside a local dive boat. Everything else stops when I receive a call to help a marine mammal. Our team deployed by boat to make an initial evaluation, and we found a 10-foot sperm whale calf just days old. The calf took shelter under our research vessel while two equally sized tiger sharks investigated their presumed future meal.

I was in constant touch with my team and warned them to mentally prepare for the harsh reality of witnessing Mother Nature’s food chain. While the circle of life is a reality, watching a distressed baby marine mammal succumb to an agonizing death by large predators is not something veterinary school teaches you to deal with. We observed both sharks making close passes as the baby whale slowly tired and maneuvered closer to shore, where she eventually stranded rather than be eaten alive. As I prepared my medical gear in anticipation of rescue or recovery, my team alerted me that the calf had stopped breathing. It’s never easy to lose a patient, but it can be difficult to see a young life end, especially when it is an endangered species that our ecosystem so desperately needs.

 The massive jaws of a stranded adult male sperm whale are impressive even in death.
It’s not uncommon for me to have more questions than answers following a postmortem examination. The calf was emaciated, presumably because mom was unavailable to provide nourishment. My only hope was that a microscopic evaluation of each organ collected would provide more compelling answers to what happened and contribute to the limited data we have to help conserve this endangered species.

Four days later we received reports of a massive whale stranded on an outer reef in the Gulf of Mexico 12 miles north of Key West, Florida. I wondered if it could be the deceased calf’s mother as I raced to the scene with the region’s stranding coordinator, Steve McCulloch, to conduct an evaluation for NOAA Fisheries. Unfortunately, the whale was deceased, and identifying it as an adult male sperm whale proved my theory wrong. To investigate further, I climbed onto the whale to collect skin samples, which can provide a treasure trove of genetic information. Fortunately, resources became available to move the whale to a local marina, where we could conduct a full necropsy the following day. NOAA Fisheries deployed additional staff and resources to collect as much information as possible, and I spent the next 12 hours examining the 47.5-foot-long sperm whale.
Ingesting 2.5 pounds of fishing net was the cause of death for this 50-ton sperm whale.
Sadly, a small 2.5-pound mass of fishing net was in the whale’s first stomach, which was likely the cause of its demise. Habitat degradation and overfishing have depleted ocean resources to the point where marine species eat anything to satisfy their hunger, with potentially deadly consequences because of our tendency to make oceans our garbage dumps. Worldwide, I find that marine mammal diseases are often the result of compromised environments.
The massive jaws of a stranded adult male sperm whale are impressive even in death.
ARCTIC SEALS IN THE SOUTH
 A typical day in the life of a marine mammal veterinarian does not exist. I have primarily focused my career on marine mammals inhabiting southeastern U.S. waters, and it was unusual to receive a call about two seals on one of Florida’s beaches. Although I doubted that the animals were actually pinnipeds, two Arctic hooded seal pups had somehow found their way to a South Florida beach. Even more unusual was that these two pups appeared to be traveling together because they are usually a solitary species. They do not migrate until they reach sexual maturity, and their usual migratory path does not include South Florida.

 We evaluated both seals at our dolphin and whale rehabilitation facility while looking for a more appropriate facility to continue their care and eventually release them. Unfortunately, only one seal survived, and that animal was transported to a New Jersey rehabilitation facility, where it would eventually be returned to the wild. During the postmortem forensic examination, I discovered that plastic spoons, plastic bags, and water bottle labels from all over the world filled the deceased pup’s stomach. As with the sperm whale, I suspect that lack of prey resulted in these wayward seals seeking better locations to satisfy their nutritional needs; the dead pup was eating anything to try and satiate his hunger, which proved fatal.
Gently restrained while receiving lifesaving treatment, this arctic hooded seal fully recovered and was released to his native waters in the North Atlantic.
A MASS STRANDING OF ROUGH-TOOTHED DOLPHINS
It’s an unwritten rule that if it’s a holiday, there’s an important meeting, or it’s on the eve of a much-awaited dive vacation, a major stranding event is sure to occur. I was attending an out-of-state conference to discuss mass-stranding management when I received a call that a mass stranding of rough-toothed dolphins was taking place in South Florida. Within 30 minutes, I was on a plane.

After receiving real-time updates that some dolphins had beached, others were rolling in the surf, and many more were milling 30 yards offshore, my team and I consulted with NOAA Fisheries officials, and then instructed first responders and public volunteers to form a human chain in the ocean to prevent more dolphins from beaching with the rest of their pod. Inclement weather was fast approaching, however, making it unsafe to remain in the water.

Not long afterward, the remaining dolphins beached, and each dolphin had an assigned volunteer. I went down the line evaluating, sampling, and tagging each dolphin. I still have nightmares about this event; some dolphins had succumbed, and many were still in distress. I made the difficult decision to perform humane euthanasia on many of the living animals to alleviate pain and distress. Only six of the 60 animals were healthy enough for our team to attempt rehabilitation. Three of those dolphins survived to return to their native habitat wearing satellite telemetry that provided vital conservation data.

As sentinels of ocean and human health, marine mammals are living environmental barometers. We share the same oceans, we eat the same fish, and humankind will ultimately go the way of the dolphins.

THE FLORIDA MANATEE
Florida manatees are a keystone species that alerts us to environmental and habitat changes in Florida’s waterways. Weighing more than 2,000 pounds, these gentle giants face innumerable threats to their habitat, including increased boat traffic, entanglement, and ingestion of marine debris. In 2021 a record 1,100 manatees died, which accounted for approximately 12 percent of the state’s population. This year wildlife officials designated Florida manatees as in crisis due to 500 deaths in an unusual mortality event (UME). The designation of a UME puts all manatee first responders, veterinarians, and scientists on high alert and prioritizes research efforts.

I have never observed a manatee without at least one scar from a boat prop. It was no surprise to find out that a manatee in Marathon, Florida, was found with severe boat propeller injuries to the head. It’s hard to imagine that any creature could survive that kind of skull trauma. A prompt rescue response to such a severe injury is critical to increasing the chances of survival. There are limited facilities available to further evaluate and treat manatees, so long transports with intense monitoring are par for the course. Moving and caring for such an enormous animal has numerous challenges, including unpredictable behavior, human safety concerns, and the added pressure of ensuring that patients from a UME arrive alive.

Fortunately, this case had a happy ending. The long transport was without incident, and subsequent surgery to remove bone fragments from the skull allowed him to return to the wild.
Marine mammals learn to present for routine health examinations in human care facilities.
NOT-SO-BABY BELUGAS
For many people, the popular children’s song “Baby Beluga” is the only familiarity they have with beluga whales, also called sea canaries because of their unique vocalizations. These whales reside far from the warm Florida waters, where I spend most of my time. Like other marine species, beluga whales face numerous environmental threats, such as commercial and recreational fisheries, that compromise their nutritional health. In addition, global warming impacts the water temperatures to which marine mammals and their prey are adapted.

I recently traveled to Norway to examine and evaluate the famed “spy whale” nicknamed Hvaldimir, who arrived in Norwegian waters in 2019 wearing a harness, camera mount, and clips with the words “Equipment St. Petersburg.” No longer in human care, Hvaldimir has learned to forage for live food and now faces the threats of human interactions and living in the waters of a whaling nation. Examining this charismatic animal in below-freezing temperatures was a reminder that extreme environments come with the territory of being a marine mammal veterinarian.

 Samples collected from necropsies will yield information in later laboratory analysis.
My work also extends beyond wild marine mammal populations. In prepandemic days I was called to evaluate a beluga whale living in an aquarium facility in China. This whale suffered from an undiagnosable skin condition sampled and studied by the world’s top marine mammal specialists. Working on a whale in managed care can be easier in some respects, especially with animals who volunteer for medical examinations and sampling procedures. Despite exhaustive efforts, however, we could not save this precious life, and that’s always a bad day at the office.
Nevertheless, it’s critical to take the knowledge we gain from both wild and managed-care marine species to preserve, protect, and conserve these vital apex predators that reside in our fragile oceans. AD


© Alert Diver — Q3 2022

Categories

 2023
immersion and bubble formation 232bar 24Hours AGE AIDA Accident management Accidents Acid reflux Acute ailments Adam Sokolski Advanced courses Rescue diver Aerobic exercise After anaesthesia Aged divers Air Ambulance Air Quality Air consumption Air exchange centre Air hose failure Air supply Airway control Air Alert Diver December 2022 Alert Diver Magazine Alert Diver March 2023 Algorithms Alice Cattaneo Alice Modolo Alopecia Alternate Airsources use Alternater Air Source Alternative gas mix Altitude changes Altitude diving Altitude sickness Aluminium Oxide Ama divers Amino acids Amos Nachoum Anaerobic Metabolism Anilao Animal intelligence Animal life Annual renewal Antarctica Anxiety Apea Apex predators Apnea addicts Apnea Apnoea Aqua corps Aquatic creatures Aquatic life Aquatics and Scuba Diving Archaeology Argonaut octopus Argonauts Argon Arrythmia Arterial Gas Embolisms Arterial gas embolism Arthroscopic surgery Aspirin Audible signals Aurel hygiene Australian Flat backed Australia Aviation o2 BCD BHP BLS BWARF Baacterial infections Back adjustment Back pain Back treatment Backextensors Backmount CCR Badages Bag valve mask Bags Bahamas Bail out cylinder Balancing Bandaids Barbell back squat Barometric pressure Barotrauma Basic Life Support Basslets Batteries Beach entry Beached coral Becky Kaga Schott Becky Kagan Schott Beluga whales Bench press Bends Benign prostate hyperplasia Benzophenones Beth Neale Beyond Standards Big Sur Bilikiki Tours Biophysics Black Water Photography Black Blood flow Blood pressure Blood thinners Blue Desert Blue Wilderness Blue economy Blue heron Bridge Bluff Blurred vision Boat diving Boat etiquette Boat safety Boats Bobbit worm Boesmans gat Boesmansgat Bonaire Bone fractures Bouyancy compensators Bouyancy control device Bouyancy controls Boyle's Law Boyle\'s Law Bradycardia Brain Brandon Cole Breast Cancer Breath Hold Diving Breath hold diver Breath holding Breath hold Breath-hold Breathing Gas Breathing gas contamination Breathing oxygen Breathing Breathold diving Bright Bank Broken bones Bruising Bubble detection Bubbleformation Buddy Exercise Buddy checks Buoyancy Burn wounds Burnshield Burns Business B CCR CE markings CGASA CMAS CNS CO2 COVID-19 Updates COVID-19 COVID CPR CSI Cabin pressure Caissons diseas California Camera equipment Camera settings Cameras Cancer Remission Cancer treatments Cancer Cannabis and diving Cannabis Cape Diver Research Cape Nudibranchs Cape Town Dive Festival Cape Town Dive Sites Cape Town CapeTown Carbon Monoxide Carbon dioxide Cardiac Health Cardiac research Cardiaccompromise Cardio health Cardiological Cardiomyopathy Caribbean Carmel Bay Carribean Conservation Catalina Island Cave Cave diving Cave divers Cave diving Cave exploration Caves Cave Cenotes Ceotes Challenging Environments Chamber Locations Chamber Safety Chamber maintenance Chamber medical staff Chamber science Chamber treatment Chamber Charging batteries Charles' Law Charles\' Law Charles\\\' Law Charles\\\\\\\' Law Charles\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\' Law Charlie Warland Chemotherapy Chest compressions Children diving Chiropractic Chlorophll Chokka Run Christina Mittermeier Chuck Davis Chuuk lagoon Citizen Conservation Citizen sciences Citizen science Clean Air Cleaning products Cleeve Robertson Climate change Closed Circuit Rebreathers Closed Circuit Rebreather Clothing Cmmunity partnership Coastal diving Coastalexcursion Cold Water Cold care Cold sores ColdWater Cold Commercial Fishing Commercial diving Commercial operations Commercial schools Common consideration Common understanding Communication Compact Cameras Composition Compressed Air Compressed gas Compressor operators Compressors Concussion Congestive heart Faiture Consercation Conservation Photographer Conservation photography Conservation Contact lenses Contaminants Contaminated air Coping with cold Coral Bleaching event Coral Conservation Coral Reefs Coral Restoration Coral bleaching Coral preservation CoralGroupers Corals Core strength Corona virus Coro Coservation Costamed Chamber Courtactions Cozumel Cradiac valvular Crime scene Cristina Mittermeier Crohns disease Crowns Crystal build up Crystallizing hoses Cubs Cutaneous decompression Cutting tools Cylinder Ruptures Cylinder capacity Cylinder handwheel Cylinder safety Cylinder valves Cylinder weight Cylinders DAN Courses DAN Europe DAN Profile DAN Researchers DAN hotline service DAN insure DAN medics DAN members DAN report DANTraining DCI DCS Decompressions sickness DCS theories DCS DEMP DM training DNA DPV DReams DSMB Daan verhoeven Dahab Dalton's Law Dalton\'s Law Dalton\\\'s Law Dalton\\\\\\\'s Law Dalton\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\'s Law Danel Wenzel Dangerous Marinelife Dauin island Dave McCowan David Doubilet Dean's Blue Hole Dean\'s Blue Hole Deco dives Decompression Illness Decompression Sickness Decompression Stress Decompression benenfits Decompression chamber Decompression illsnes Decompression ilness Decompression limits Decompression treatment Decompression Decomression sickness Decorator crabs Deep Freediving Deep diving Deep water exploration Deepest SCUBA Dive Delayed Offgassing Dennis Guichard Dental Depth limits Dever Health Diadema Response Team Diagnosis Diaphragms Diets Diopter Dirty water Discomfort Diseases Disinfection Disorientation Distraction Dive Accident Dive Action Dive Buddy Dive Chamber Dive Chmber Dive Computer Dive Destinations Dive Destination Dive Fitness # fit to dive @Dive health Dive H Dive Industry Dive Instruction Dive Instructor Dive Lights Dive Masters Dive Medical Form Dive Medical Dive Practices Dive Professionals Dive Pros Dive Rescue Dive Research Dive Safari Dive Safety Tips Dive South Africa Dive Taiwan Dive Training Dive Travel Wakatobi Dive Travel Dive accidents Dive bell Dive buddies Dive caves Dive centre rules Dive communications Dive computers Dive courses Dive cover Dive cylinder Aluminium Dive equipment Dive excursions Dive exercise Dive exeriences Dive experience Dive fitness Dive gear Dive heallth Dive health Dive in Africa Dive insurance Dive leaders Dive masks Dive medical insurance Dive medicals Dive medicines Dive medicine Dive operators Dive opportunities Dive planning Dive procedures Dive safety 101 Dive safety briefing Dive safety Dive safe Dive skills Dive staff Dive teams Dive travels DiveLIVE DiveTravel Diveleader training Diveleaders Divelights Diver Ethisc Diver Food Diver Health Diver Profile Diver Travel Diver education Diver infliencers Diver on surface Diver recall Diverover 50 Divers Alert Diversafety Divers Divesites Diving Divas Diving Equipment Diving Family Diving Fatalities Diving Feet Diving Helmets Diving Kids Diving Programs Diving Trauma Diving career Diving emergencies Diving emergency management Diving etiquette Diving fit Diving guidelines Diving history Diving injuries Diving science Diving suspended Diving Dizziness Dizzyness Dolphins Domestic Donating Blood Donation Doug Perrine Dowels Dr Rob Schneider Drift diving Drysuit diving Drysuit valves Drysuits Durban Dynamic environment Dyperbaric medicines EAPs EAP EKG EMS EN standards Ear barotrauma Ear pressure Ear wax Ears injuries Eat fish Eco friendly Ecowise Education Electronic Embolisms Emergency Action Plan Emergency Planning Emergency action planning Emergency decompression Emergency plans Emergency treatments Emergency underwater Oxygen Recompression Emergency Endurance Entry Envenomations Enviromental Protection Environmental factors Environmental impact Environmental managment Environmental stewardship Equalisation Equalization Equipment care Equipment failure Equipment inspection Equipment significance Evacuations Evacuation Evaluations Even Breath Evironmetaly friendly Exercise Exercising Exhaustion Exploration dives Exposure Protection Extended divetime Extinction Extinguisher Extreme treatments Eye injuries Eye protection FAQ Face computer Factor V Leiden Failures FalseBay Diving Fatigue Faulty equipment Feet Femal diver Female divers Fenivir Fetus development Field practice Filling stations Fillings Fin Foot Fins Fire Coral Fire Safety Fire extinguisher Firefighting Fires First Aid Equipment First Aid Kit First Aid Trainig First Aid Training First Aid kits First Aid Fish Identification Fish Life Fishing Fish Fit to dive Fitness Levels Fitness Training Fitness evaluation Fitness to dive Fitnesstrainng Fitness Flying Focus lights Food Footissues Foundations Fractures Francesca Diaco Francois Burman Fred Buyle Fredive Free Student cover Free diving Free flow Freedive Competition Rules Freedive Competiton Freedive INstructor Freedive Safety Freedive Training Freedive computer Freedive modes Freedive rescue procedures Freediver Staff Instructor Freediver Freedive Freediving Instructors Freediving performance Freediving Fur rade Galapagos Gar Waterman Gardens of The Queen Gas Density Gas Planning Gas consumption Gas emboli Gas laws Gas management Gas mixes GasPerformance Gasblends Gases Gass bubbles Gastoeusophagus Gastric bypass Gastroenterologist Gas Gear Servicing Germs Geyer Bank Giant Kelp Forest Giant Kelp Giant stride Girls that Scba Gobies Golden fish Gordon Hiles Great White Sharks Green sea turtle Green turles Greenlings Guinness World Record Gutt irritations HBOT HBO HCV HELP HIRA HMLI HMS Britanica Haemorhoid treatment Hand signals Harry Chammas Havanna Hawaii Hawksbill Hazard Description Hazardous Marine life Hazardous marinelife Head injuries Headaches Health practitioner Healthy Food Heart Attack Heart Health Heart Rate monitor Heart fitness Heart rates Heart rate Heart Heat loss Heat stress Helen Walne Heliox Helium Gas Helium Hematoma Hemodynamic Hepatitis C Hepatitus B Hiatal Hernia High Pressure vessels High pressure hoses High temperatures Hip strength Hip surgery Hippocampus History Hole in the heart Hood Hot Human diver Humans Hydrate Hydration Hydrogen Hydroids Hydrostatic pressure Hygiene Hyperbaric Chamber Hyperbaric Oxygen Treatments Hyperbaric Oxygen Hyperbaric research Hyperbaric treatment Hyperbarics Hypertension Hypothermia Hypoxia I-52 found INclusivity IdentiFin Imaging Immersion Immine systems In Water Recompression Increased pressure Indemnity form Indian Ocean Indigo SCuba Indonesia Inert gas Infections Infra red Imaging Inhaca Ocean Alliance Injections Inner ear Instinct Instruction Instructors Insulation Insurance policy Insurance Integrated Physiology International travel International Internship programs Internship Interval training Investigations Irritation Irukandji Syndrome Isotta housing Italy Itchy Rash Its OK Jellyfish Jennifer Hayes Jill Heinerth Joanna Wyrebek John Vowles Joint pain Joshua Journal for Technical Diving Junior Open Water Diver KZN South Coast KZN Karen van den Oever Kate Jonker KateJonker Kelp Forest Kelp forests Kenya Kidneys Kids scubadiver Komati Springs KwaZulu Natal Kwazulu-Natal LED lights LED Labour laws Lake Huron Lara Lambiase Laryngospasm Lauren Arthur Leanne Walmsley Learning to dive Leatherbacks Leatherback Legal Network Legal advice Legislation Lembeh Straights Lenses Leslie Lwaney Leukemis Liability Insurance Liability Risks Liability releases Liability Life expectancy Lifestyle Lighting equipment Lighting Lightroom editing Lights Lionfish Live aboard diving Liveaboard Liver Toxicity Liver diseas Liz Louw Loss of consciousness Lost at sea Lost divers Low Visability Low blood platelets Low blood pressure Low pressure deterioration Low volume masks Lumpsuckers Lung Irritation Lung flexibility Lung function Lung injuries Lung over expansion Lung squeeze Lung surgery Lung MOD MOzambique diving MPA Macro photography Mafia Island Maintenance Malaria Mammalian Dive Response Mammalian effect Manatees Mandarin Fish Marfan syndrome Marine Biologist Marine Biology Marine Mega fauna Marine Science Marine Scientists Marine conservation Marine parks Marine plants Marinelife Marinescience Markus Dirschi Marlin Marne protecte areas Mask clearing Masks Mask Master scuba diver Matty Smith Maximum operating depth Medical FAQ Medical Q Medical emergencies Medical forms Medical oxygen Medical questionaire Medical statement Medical team Medicalquestionaires Medicalresearch Medicalstudents Medication Mehgan Heaney-Grier Membership benefits Menopause Menstruation Mental health Mermaid Danii Mesophotic Metotrexate Mexico Michael Aw Micro Photography Microbubbles Middle ear pressure Mike Bartick Military front press Military Misool Resort Raja Ampat Mixed Gas Mono Fins Mooring lines More pressure Motion sickness Motionsickness Mount Kilimanjaro Mozambique Muck Diving Muscle pain Mycobacterium marinum NDL limits NSRI Narcosis National Geographic Nature Nausea Nauticam Ambassadors Nauticam Ambassador Nautilus Navigation Ndibranchs Neck pain Neoprene layers Neuro assessments Neurocognitive research Neurological assessments Neuromotor exercises New Caledonia Nichola Bird Nicorette Nicotine Nitrogen Narcosis Nitrogen build up Nitrox No Decompression Limits No-decompression limits No-decompression Non-nano zinc oxide Non-rebreather Mask Non-smoking Nondiving related illness Nonrebreather masks Normal Air North Sulawesi Northern Taiwan Nosebleeds Nudibranchs Nuno Gomes Nutrition O2 enriched O2 oxygen provider. O2 providers O2 servicing O2 treatments O2treatments OOxygen maintenance Ocean Alliance Ocean Projects Ocean Research Ocean animals Ocean clean up Ocean community Ocean conservation Ocean life Ocean mammals Ocean migrations Ocean pollution Oceangate Ocean Octopus Oil contamination Olive Ridley Open Ocean Open water divers Operatorethics Optical focus Oral contraseptives Orbital implants Oronasal mask Osteonecrosis Otters Out and about Out of air Outer ears Outreach Overhead Envirenments Oxygen Administration Oxygen Cylinder Oxygen Toxicity Oxygen Units Oxygen deficit Oxygen deicit Oxygen dificiency Oxygen ears Oxygen equipment Oxygen explosions Oxygen kit Oxygen masks Oxygen providers Oxygen safety Oxygen supplies Oxygen supply Oxygen systems Oxygen therapy Oxygen treatment Oxygen P J Prinsloo PADI Freedivers PFI PFOs PFO PJP Tech PTSD Paper Nautilus Paralysis Parentalsupervision Part 3 Partner Training Patent foramen ovale PatentForamen Ovale Pemba Island Peri-peri Divers Personal Perspective Petar Denoble Peter Lindholm Philippine Islands Philippines Phillipines Photographers Photographer Photography tips Photography Physical Fitness Physioball Physiology Physiotherapy Pills Pilot Whale Pistons Planning Plastic pollution Plastic Plimsoll Interface Pneumonia Pneumothorax Poison Pole fishing Polka Dot Bat fish Pollution Pool Diving Pool chemicals Pool maintenance Pool workout Pools Post traumatic Post-dive Potuguese man-of-war Pre-dive fitness Pre-dive Predive check Pregnancy Pregnant divers Preparation Prepared diver Press Release Preventions ProDive Port Elizabeth Product scuba nudi Professional rights Protection Provider course Psycological Pulmanologist Pulmonary Barotrauma Pulmonary Bleb Pulmonary Edema Pulmonary Hypertension Pulse Punture wounds Pure Air Pure Apnea Purge Quit Smoking Q RAID South Africa RCAP REEF RMV ROS Radio communications Range of motion Rashes Reactive oxygen species Rebreather diving Rebreatherdive Recces Rechargeable batteries. Rechargeable Recompression chamber Recompression treatment Recompression Recreational dives Recycle Red SEA Reef Chcek Reef Conservation Reef Environmental Education Foundation Reef protection Reef safe Reef surveyors Refractive correction Regal Sea Goddesses Regulator failure Regulators Regulator Remote areas Remote dive locations Remote islands Renewable Rental gear Report incidents Rescue Divers Rescue Procedure Rescue breathing Rescue breaths Rescue diver Rescue skills Rescue skill Rescue training Rescue Researcher profile Research Respitory Minute Volume Resume diving Return To Diving Return to diving Reuseable items Rhinopias Risk Assessments Risk assesments Risk assessment Risk elements Risk management Risk mitigation Risks of Seizures River diving Riviera Maya Roatan Marine Park Roatan Ronblom Rubber ducks SABS 019 SAC SMB SRC SafariLive Safe diving practices Safety Concerns Safety Gear Safety Stop Safety in Air Safety SaherSafe Barrier Salisbury Island Salish Seas Salty Wanderer Sanitising Sanne Volja Sara Andreotti Sara Banderby Sara Campbell Sardine Run Sargassum sea Saturation Diving Saturation diver Save our seas Schrimps Science of diving Science Scoliosis Scombroid Poisoning Scorpion Fish Scuba Air Quality Scuba Guru Scuba Injury Scuba Instructor Scuba children Scuba divers Scuba dive Scuba diving Scuba education Scuba gear Scuba health Scubalearners Scubalife Sea Horses Sea Turtles Sea rescue Sea slugs Seagrass Sealcolonies Sealife Seals Seasickness Seaweeds Seaweed Sea Self Rescue Send Nudi Shallow Water Blackout Shallow dives Shark Protection Shark Research Shark conservation Shark diving Sharks Shipwrecks Shit Happens Shore entries Shoulder strength Sidemount Sideplank Signalling devices Signs and Symptoms Silty bottoms Sit-ups Sixgill Sharks Skills in action Skin Bends Skin outbreak Skin rash Smart phone photography Snells Window Snorkeling Snorkels Social Distancing Sodwana Bay Solomon Islands Sonnier bank South Africa Southern Sea Otters SpareAir Special Operations Special forces units Sperm Whales Spinal Bend Spinal bends Spinal cord DCS Spinal dura Spinal pain Spinner dolphins Spleen Splits Sports medicine Squeezes Squid Run Stability exercise Stage cylinder Standars Statin Mediction Stay Fit Stay Warm Steel Stefan Randig Stents Step ups Stephen Frink Stepping up Stobes Stockton Rush Stonetown Stretch band exercise Stretch bands Stretching Strobe Lighting Strobes Stroke Submerge tech Submerged Sudafed Sulawesi Sun protection Sun screen Sunscreen Supplemental oxygen Surface Air Consumption Surface Consumption Rate Surface Marker Buoys Surface supplied Air Surfaced Surfers Surgeries Surgery Survivor Suspension training Swim Fitness Swimmers health SwimmingIn wateractivities Swimming Sylvia Earl Symbiosis Symbiosys TRavel safety Tabata protocol Talya Davidoff Tank valve Tanzania Tara Panton Tattoes Tchnical diving Team Awareness Tec Clark Tec divers Tec diving Tech diving Technical Diving Technical diver Technical divng Temperature Homeostatis The Bends The Cavettes The Produce The Titanic Wreck The Wild Coast The greatest Shoal The silent world The truth Thermal Notions Thermoregulation Thomas Peschak Thresher shark Thunder Bay National Marine Sanctuary Tides Tips and trick Tonga Tooth squeeze Transplants Trashbag Trauma Travel Safe Travel destinations Travel smarter Travel tips Travel Tropical Coastal Management Tulamben Tullum Tulum. Tuna Tunnelling Turks and Caicos Turtles Tweezers Ultrsound Umkomaas Unconscious diver Unconsciousness Underground waterways Underground work Underseaa world Underwaater Photos Underwater Photography Underwater Photograper Underwater Photograpgraphy Underwater Photographer Manirelife Underwater Photographers Underwater Research Underwater camera Underwater critters Underwater floral Gardens Underwater hockey Underwater imaging Underwater lights Underwater models Underwater photographer Underwater photography Underwater photos Underwater pho Underwater sound Underwatercommunications Underwater Underwtaer photography University of Stellenbosch Unresponsive Urchins Urinary retention. VGE Vacations Vaccines Vagus nerve Valsalva manoeuvers Valve stem seals Vape Vaping Vasopressors Vasvagal Syncope Venous gas emboli Ventilate Venting Verna van Schak Veterinarian Videography Vincenzo Ferri. Virus infections Volatile fuels WWII wrecks War stories Washout treatments Wastewater Watchman device Water Resistance Water Weakness Weigang Xu Weightloss Weights West Papua Western Cape Diving Wet Lenses Wet diving bell Wetsuit fitting Wetsuites Wetsuits Wetsuit White balance Whitetpped Sharks Wide Angle Photos Wide angles Wildlife park Wildlife Winter Wits Underwater Club Wolf Eels Woman and diving Woman in diving Woman's Health Womans health Woman Women In Diving SA Women and Diving Women in Freediving Women in diving Womens Month Womens health Work of Breathing Workout World Deeepst Dive Record World Records Wound dressings Wreck History Wreck divers Wreck dive Wreck diving Wreck exploration Wreckdiving Wrecks Wrist technology Yachts Yoga Youth diver Zandile Ndholvu Zanzibar Zoology Zooplankton \ Blennies abrasion absolute pressure acoustic neuroma excision adverse seas air-cushioned alert diver altitude alveolar walls anemia antibiotics anticoagulants antiseptics bandages barodontalgia bent-over barbell rows bioassays biodiversity bloodcells blue carbon body art breathing air calories burn canal blockage cannabis oil carbon dioxide toxicity cardiovascular career developments cerebrospinal fluid cervical spine checklist chemo port children child chronic obstructive pulmonary disease clearances closed circuit scuba compressed gass coral growth corrective lenses crystalweed currents cuts cylinder filling daggaolie dagga dead lift decompression algorithms decongestants decongestion deep dive training dehydration discovery dive clubs dive injuries dive medicing dive ready child dive reflex dive tribe divecomputers diver in distress diver rescue diver training dive diving attraction diving hoods doctors dolphns domestic travel dri-suits drowning dry mucous membranes dry suits dry e-cigarettes ear spaces earplugs ears elearning electrolyte imbalance electroytes emergency action plans emergency assessment emergency training environmentally friendly equalising equalizing exposure injuries eyes fEMAL DIVERS fire rescue fish watching fitness Balance fitnes flexible tubing frediving freedivers gas bubble gas poisoning gastric acid gene expression health heartburn heron bridge histidine hospital humidity hypobaric hypoxia immersion and bubble formation immersion pulmonary edema (IPE informal education isopropyl alcohol jaundice join DAN knee lanyard laparoscopic surgery life jackets longevity lower stress lox oxygen level lungs malaise mamalian effect marielife marine pathogens medical Questions medical issues medical procedures medical risk assesment medications mental challenge mental preparedness micro-organisims micro minor illness mucous membranes multilineage dysplasia myelodysplasia nasal steroids nasal near drowning nematocysts neurological newdivers nitrogen bubbles no tanx off-gassed operating theatre operations orthopeadic otitis media out planting outgas pain parameters perforation phillippines phrenic nerve physical challenges pinched nerves plasters pneumoperitoneum polyester-TPU polyether-TPU post dive posture prescription mask preserve prevention professional emergency responders proper equalization psychoactive pulmonary barotrauma. pulmonary injury. pulmunary barotrauma pure oxygen radiation rebreather mask rebreathers retinal detachment risk areas safety stops saturation scissors scuba equipment scuba sea goddesses single use sinus infections situationalawarenes smoking snorkeling. spearfishing spliff sterilising stings strength sub-aquatic sunscreen lotion swimmer's ear swimmer\'s ear swimmers ears tattoo care tecnical diver thermal protection tissue damage toxicity trachea training travel Insurance trimix tympanic membrane unified standards upcycled upwelling virtual coach vision impaired vomiting warmers water quality zinc oxide