Sight Search

Mexico’s Sardine Run

 The size of the sardine baitballs can vary from a few dozen to more than a thousand.
CREDITS | Text and photos by Amos Nachoum

Marlins and more in Magdalena Bay 

Although striped marlins (Kajikia audax) are slower than some of their billfish cousins, their 50-mph speed is plenty fast for me. I try to swim alongside this stealth bomber of the sea as it works a baitball to separate individual sardines from the silvery mass.

 While getting outpaced by sailfish and black marlin might be important to striped marlins trying to elude predation, they are so much faster than freediving humans that we don’t usually get close to one. But the Mexico sardine run isn’t normal circumstances, and the marlins aren’t swimming away. They are swimming around, over, under, and through a bait-ball. If you can stay with the bait-ball, you can stay with the marlins.

 For this reason, underwater photographic encounters with marlins are now very popular in Mexico. It also helps that travel to Mexico is relatively easy, and the seasonal reliability of the sardine aggregations and the attendant predators provides a high probability of a successful encounter. It’s the wild ocean and not an aquarium, so there are no guarantees, but divers and dive operators have refined the protocols for finding bait-balls. Sailfish appear off the coast of Isla Mujeres and Cancun from January through March, and striped marlins are accessible at Magdalena Bay on the west coast of Baja California Sur from November through January.

 Small pelagic fishes (sardines, anchovies, and mackerels) travel within the California Current, and the timing and location of their congregations influence the upper trophic levels in the food web. The North Pacific Current splits near British Columbia — the Alaska Current runs north to Alaska, while the California Current travels southward along the West Coast to Baja California. The small pelagics in the California Current are sensitive to environmental changes such as El Niño, making them susceptible to any resulting water variations
A mobula breaches in Magdalena Bay.
Researchers have identified three peak locations along the southern part of Baja where the sardines spawn, lay eggs, hatch, and mature: Magdalena Bay, Golden Gate Bank near Cabo San Lucas, and Finger Bank, a seamount near Todos Santos. Protected from the Pacific Ocean by the uninhabited sandy barrier islands of Isla Magdalena and Isla Santa Margarita, Magdalena Bay (Bahía Magdalena) spans 31 miles along the western coast of the Mexican state of Baja California Sur. By autumn, the sardines have matured enough to attract large predators such as bonitos, striped marlins, Pacific sailfish, sea lions, and even Bryde’s whales.
Finding a submerged ball of sardines in the open ocean is extremely unlikely by happenstance. Successful encounters occur when divers adopt the same protocols as the seasoned skippers of the sportfishing fleets, who travel 15 to 20 miles out to sea and typically 40 to 50 miles south of San Carlos. The frigatebirds follow the sardines, and we follow the frigatebirds. They are our eyes in the sky.

Frigatebirds search for a meal by flying high enough to see through the water’s surface to the frenzied activity below. As the birds find the baitball, their flight posture changes, and they circle while skimming low over the water. We approach and see the disturbance on the water’s surface as the swarming sardines jump out of the water, creating shiny waves of spray and a cacophony of swishes and splashes as thousands of sardines seek to escape the striped marlins below only to be scooped up by the frigatebirds above. The sardines’ bad luck is our good fortune as we embark on an extraordinary dive adventure.
Skippers from San Carlos operate fast pangas to follow the birds, which leads them to the baitballs of sardines and their predators, the striped marlins.
“Go, go, go!” the divemaster screams at us. I jump into the warm water and search left, right, and below. The visibility is at least 80 feet, but I don’t see anything until a dozen or more striped marlins suddenly appear out of the blue. I continue swimming and kick harder in the direction the marlins are going.  Tracking the marlins is tiring, but I keep swimming, confident they know where they are going even if I don’t. Then at the edge of my visibility I see something big, round, and dynamic.

As I close the distance, the sphere coalesces into a frenzied, swirling mass of small silvery fish. The marlins were already on the attack. One after another, the marlins race toward the prey, raising their sails, with their bodies streaming silver and blue and reflecting dabs of yellow from the fading afternoon glow. Shaking their tails, they speed toward the baitball and then execute an impossibly tight turn to close in on the terrified sardines. The full power of their fearsome bills is on display as they bisect the baitball and collide with the helpless fish.

I am glad digital photography doesn’t limit me to only 36 shots as film did. How could I possibly pace myself with all the constant action? Gratefully, I don’t have to, so I keep photographing the scene.

 You will see a range of cameras from smartphones to large digital single-lens reflex and mirrorless cameras. The action occurs in shallow water, and most shooters don’t need strobes.

Some sea lions join the hunt and help the marlins with corralling the sardines close to the surface to make feeding easier. The marlins are more cautious about attacking the baitball when the sea lions are around and search for space between the sea lions’ attacks, perhaps as a precaution to avoid breaking their fragile bills by dashing them against the sea lions.

As more sea lions arrive and gorge themselves on the sardines, the marlins withdraw to search for another baitball. Fortunately, many other such aggregations are in the open ocean outside Magdalena Bay.

You might think there would be competition between freedivers who want to see a marlin underwater and the fishers who want to catch and land a billfish. As diving with marlins has grown in popularity among in-water enthusiasts, however, tourist dollars have benefitted the local San Carlos fishing community. Many skippers there joined together and created a union. Fishers have turned to ecotourism, through which they make more money than before, put less pressure on the billfish populations, and ultimately are more aware of conservation and sustainability.
Bird Island in the heart of Magdalena Bay is a rookery for cormorants and brown pelicans.
The area now has an influx of people from all over the world. The action attracts commercial and sportfishing yachts, television and movie productions, and pure nature lovers. You will see a range of cameras from smartphones to large digital single-lens reflex and mirrorless cameras. The action occurs in shallow water, and most shooters don’t need strobes, making for less resistance in the water and greater ease of getting in and out of the panga. During the peak season in November, half a dozen to a dozen vessels might be relatively nearby, but they won’t all be on the same baitball.

 Local operators work together in a loose tourism co-op and communicate via marine radio, inviting others to share their good fortune when they find a promising baitball. With their collaborative mindset, it is almost certain that all visiting tourists will return home with stories and images to share. The local guides work hard to train their guests how to safely approach the baitball without being intrusive. Marlins will leave when people get too close to the baitball, so the objective is to observe without pressuring the marine life.

 Local panga operators follow safety protocols, including staying in radio contact with their home base and each other, always returning to shore before nightfall, and reporting when they leave the action zone. They generally travel back to port together in a loose flotilla at the end of the day, which is a prudent arrangement for small boats with single outboard motors 40 miles offshore

 Weather plays a crucial role in dive travel to this remote area with limited rescue services. Operators will sometimes suspend their trips, particularly when there are strong winds. Instead of heading out to sea, the skippers will operate within the more protected waters of Magdalena Bay. While it may not be the intended destination, the bay can also offer fascinating encounters. An extensive sand dune zone on the northwest corner of the bay has elaborate water channels and a healthy mangrove habitat. There is a vibrant population of fish, cormorants, pelicans, and other bird species. You may even see a coyote or a bald eagle. This mangrove wonderland might not be the hook that brings you to Magdalena Bay, but the time you spend exploring the mountainous Isla Magdalena and Isla Santa Margarita will inspire you.

 From November through January, the baitballs attract wildlife other than marlins, including tiger sharks. Tiger sharks change the vibe, so we stay vigilant and take the precaution of turning off bright video lights. The sharks are quite possessive of the baitball, and we are deferential to our place in the food chain.
A sunrise expedition to Bird Island is rewarded by seeing huge flocks of pelicans in flight.
A pod of orcas visits two or three times during a season, generating much excitement. While we were sitting on the panga a burst of rapid conversation lit up the airwaves. Several pangas left their baitballs to rendezvous with the fisher who spotted the orcas and alerted his buddies. It was extraordinary to swim for two hours with a pod of six transient orcas. One of the females carried a piece of shark meat in her jaw and brought it is close to the panga. After taking a few images of her above water, my team and I joined the pod in the water for a peaceful and nonthreatening encounter — an experience that will never leave me.

In November and December humpback whales migrate south to the warm waters of Panama and Socorro to socialize and give birth. We were able to swim with a mother and calf several times. That same season, another team had a remarkable experience swimming with blue whales migrating south toward the Sea of Cortez.

Mobula ray encounters off Magdalena Bay are fantastic as well. When the sea was too rough to cruise to the sardine grounds and the wind had dispersed the frigatebird flocks, our experienced skipper suggested we head out to sea. After an hour or two of watching for whale spouts, someone saw a breaching mobula.

That’s one thing about the Mexican sardine run — it pays to be flexible. Whatever you thought you might photograph in the morning may not be the images you end up editing at the end of the day. Despite the change in plans, the massive school of mobulas made us very happy.
A few times each season a pod of transient orcas visits the region.
Our final notable encounter on this trip was with a Bryde’s whale. Although they are smaller cetaceans, slightly shorter and lighter than humpbacks, Bryde’s whales still take your breath away. The whales may quietly arrive while you are focused on a baitball or darting marlin. With their giant mouths gaping wide, they surprisingly swoop in and engulf almost all the baitball at once.

If you don’t mind getting up a bit early, you can head out to sea at 5:30 a.m. to see the sunrise over Bird Island. You won’t regret it. The island can accommodate thousands of cormorants and pelicans.

When looking at some of my drone footage taken from high enough above the island to avoid disrupting the birds below, I discovered the island is shaped like a heart. Only then did I discover the symbolic heart of Magdalena Bay, pulsing with life both above and below the sea.
How to Dive It
Getting there: Flights are available to Loreto, La Paz, and Los Cabos. Check with your tour operator regarding van transportation or car rental from the airport to San Carlos. The best time to travel to Magdalena Bay is November through January.

Accommodations: San Carlos has several basic hotels ranging from about $50 to $100 per night. All are safe and clean, and the Mexican food and drink from the local cantinas are wonderful.

Dive operators: A local fishing cooperative offers land-based diving operations on 25-foot pangas with outboard motors. Regional operators run liveaboards, and their schedules vary by season and preference.

Gear: Bring at least a mask, fins, and a snorkel. Freediving fins are not a must but will be more efficient for those with a powerful kick. A wind- and waterproof jacket, a warm fleece, sunscreen, and sunglasses are good to have.

Photography: All kinds of cameras will give you amazing images. Telephoto lenses are good for topside photos. There is such a wealth of photo opportunities you’ll want something to capture the scene. For underwater photography, plan for wide-angle to superwide lenses. You won’t need strobes.

© Alert Diver Magazine Q1 2022/


immersion and bubble formation 232bar AGE AIDA Accident management Accidents Acid reflux Acute ailments Advanced courses Rescue diver Aerobic exercise After anaesthesia Aged divers Air Quality Air consumption Air exchange centre Air hose failure Air supply Airway control Air Alert Diver December 2022 Alert Diver Magazine Alert Diver March 2023 Algorithms Alice Cattaneo Alice Modolo Alopecia Alternate Airsources use Alternater Air Source Alternative gas mix Altitude changes Altitude diving Altitude sickness Aluminium Oxide Ama divers Amino acids Amos Nachoum Anaerobic Metabolism Anilao Animal life Annual renewal Antarctica Anxiety Apea Apex predators Apnea addicts Apnea Apnoea Aqua corps Aquatic creatures Aquatic life Aquatics and Scuba Diving Archaeology Argonaut octopus Argonauts Argon Arrythmia Arterial Gas Embolisms Arterial gas embolism Arthroscopic surgery Aspirin Audible signals Aurel hygiene Australian Flat backed Australia Aviation o2 BCD BHP BLS BWARF Baacterial infections Back adjustment Back pain Back treatment Backextensors Backmount CCR Badages Bag valve mask Bags Bahamas Bail out cylinder Balancing Bandaids Barbell back squat Barometric pressure Barotrauma Basic Life Support Basslets Batteries Beach entry Beached coral Becky Kaga Schott Becky Kagan Schott Beluga whales Bench press Bends Benign prostate hyperplasia Benzophenones Beth Neale Beyond Standards Big Sur Bilikiki Tours Biophysics Black Water Photography Black Blood flow Blood pressure Blood thinners Blue Desert Blue Wilderness Blue economy Blue heron Bridge Bluff Blurred vision Boat diving Boat safety Bobbit worm Boesmans gat Boesmansgat Bonaire Bone fractures Bouyancy compensators Bouyancy controls Boyle's Law Boyle\'s Law Bradycardia Brain Brandon Cole Breast Cancer Breath Hold Diving Breath hold diver Breath holding Breath hold Breath-hold Breathing Gas Breathing gas contamination Breathing oxygen Breathing Breathold diving Bright Bank Broken bones Bruising Bubble detection Bubbleformation Buddy Exercise Buddy checks Buoyancy Burn wounds Burnshield Burns B CCR CE markings CGASA CMAS CO2 COVID-19 Updates COVID-19 COVID CPR Cabin pressure Caissons diseas California Camera equipment Camera settings Cameras Cancer Remission Cancer treatments Cancer Cannabis and diving Cannabis Cape Diver Research Cape Town Dive Festival Cape Town Dive Sites Cape Town CapeTown Carbon Monoxide Carbon dioxide Cardiac research Cardiaccompromise Cardio health Cardiological Cardiomyopathy Caribbean Carmel Bay Carribean Conservation Catalina Island Cave diving Cave exploration Caves Cave Cenotes Ceotes Challenging Environments Chamber Safety Chamber science Chamber treatment Charging batteries Charles' Law Charles\' Law Charles\\\' Law Charles\\\\\\\' Law Charles\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\' Law Charlie Warland Chemotherapy Chest compressions Children diving Chiropractic Chlorophll Chokka Run Christina Mittermeier Chuck Davis Citizen Conservation Citizen sciences Citizen science Clean Air Cleaning products Climate change Closed Circuit Rebreathers Closed Circuit Rebreather Clothing Cmmunity partnership Coastal diving Coastalexcursion Cold Water Cold care Cold sores ColdWater Cold Commercial Fishing Commercial diving Commercial schools Common consideration Common understanding Communication Composition Compressed Air Compressed gas Compressor operators Compressors Concussion Congestive heart Faiture Consercation Conservation Photographer Conservation photography Conservation Contact lenses Contaminants Contaminated air Coping with cold Coral Bleaching event Coral Conservation Coral Reefs Coral Restoration Coral bleaching Coral preservation CoralGroupers Corals Core strength Corona virus Coro Coservation Costamed Chamber Courtactions Cozumel Cradiac valvular Cristina Mittermeier Crohns disease Crowns Crystal build up Crystallizing hoses Cubs Cutaneous decompression Cutting tools Cylinder Ruptures Cylinder capacity Cylinder handwheel Cylinder safety Cylinder valves Cylinder weight Cylinders DAN Courses DAN Europe DAN Profile DAN Researchers DAN medics DAN members DAN report DANTraining DCI DCS Decompressions sickness DCS theories DCS DEMP DM training DNA DReams DSMB Daan verhoeven Dahab Dalton's Law Dalton\'s Law Dalton\\\'s Law Dalton\\\\\\\'s Law Dalton\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\'s Law Danel Wenzel Dangerous Marinelife Dauin island Dave McCowan David Doubilet Dean's Blue Hole Dean\'s Blue Hole Deco dives Decompression Illness Decompression Sickness Decompression Stress Decompression chamber Decompression illsnes Decompression ilness Decompression limits Decompression treatment Decompression Decomression sickness Decorator crabs Deep Freediving Deep diving Deep water exploration Deepest SCUBA Dive Delayed Offgassing Dental Depth limits Dever Health Diadema Response Team Diagnosis Diaphragms Diopter Discomfort Diseases Disinfection Disorientation Distraction Dive Accident Dive Buddy Dive Chamber Dive Chmber Dive Computer Dive Destinations Dive Destination Dive H Dive Industry Dive Instruction Dive Instructor Dive Lights Dive Medical Form Dive Medical Dive Practices Dive Professionals Dive Pros Dive Rescue Dive Research Dive Safari Dive Safety Tips Dive South Africa Dive Training Dive Travel Wakatobi Dive Travel Dive accidents Dive buddies Dive caves Dive computers Dive courses Dive cover Dive cylinder Aluminium Dive equipment Dive excursions Dive exercise Dive exeriences Dive experience Dive fitness Dive gear Dive heallth Dive health Dive in Africa Dive insurance Dive medical insurance Dive medicals Dive medicines Dive medicine Dive operators Dive opportunities Dive planning Dive procedures Dive safety 101 Dive safety Dive safe Dive skills Dive staff Dive travels DiveLIVE DiveTravel Diveleader training Diveleaders Divelights Diver Ethisc Diver Food Diver Health Diver Profile Diver Travel Diver education Diver infliencers Diver on surface Diver recall Diverover 50 Divers Alert Diversafety Divers Divesites Diving Divas Diving Family Diving Fatalities Diving Feet Diving Helmets Diving Kids Diving Programs Diving Trauma Diving career Diving emergencies Diving emergency management Diving fit Diving guidelines Diving history Diving injuries Diving science Diving suspended Diving Dizziness Dizzyness Dolphins Domestic Donating Blood Donation Doug Perrine Dowels Dr Rob Schneider Drift diving Drysuit diving Drysuit valves Drysuits Durban Dynamic environment Dyperbaric medicines EAPs EAP EMS EN standards Ear barotrauma Ear pressure Ear wax Ears injuries Eco friendly Ecowise Education Electronic Embolisms Emergency Action Plan Emergency Planning Emergency action planning Emergency decompression Emergency plans Emergency treatments Emergency underwater Oxygen Recompression Emergency Endurance Entry Envenomations Enviromental Protection Environmental factors Environmental impact Environmental managment Environmental stewardship Equalisation Equalization Equipment care Equipment failure Equipment inspection Equipment significance Evacuations Evacuation Evaluations Even Breath Evironmetaly friendly Exercise Exercising Exhaustion Exposure Protection Extended divetime Extinction Extinguisher Extreme treatments Eye injuries FAQ Face computer Factor V Leiden Failures FalseBay Diving Fatigue Faulty equipment Feet Femal diver Female divers Fenivir Fetus development Field practice Filling stations Fillings Fin Foot Fins Fire Coral Fire Safety Fire extinguisher Firefighting Fires First Aid Equipment First Aid Kit First Aid Trainig First Aid Training First Aid kits First Aid Fish Identification Fish Life Fish Fit to dive Fitness Levels Fitness Training Fitness evaluation Fitness to dive Fitnesstrainng Fitness Flying Focus lights Food Footissues Foundations Fractures Francesca Diaco Francois Burman Fred Buyle Fredive Free Student cover Free diving Free flow Freedive Competition Rules Freedive Competiton Freedive INstructor Freedive Safety Freedive Training Freedive computer Freedive modes Freedive rescue procedures Freediver Staff Instructor Freediver Freedive Freediving Instructors Freediving performance Freediving Fur rade Galapagos Gar Waterman Gardens of The Queen Gas Density Gas Planning Gas consumption Gas emboli Gas laws Gas mixes GasPerformance Gasblends Gases Gass bubbles Gastoeusophagus Gastric bypass Gastroenterologist Gas Gear Servicing Germs Geyer Bank Giant Kelp Forest Giant Kelp Giant stride Girls that Scba Gobies Golden fish Gordon Hiles Great White Sharks Green sea turtle Green turles Greenlings Guinness World Record Gutt irritations HBOT HCV HELP HIRA HMLI HMS Britanica Haemorhoid treatment Hand signals Harry Chammas Havanna Hawaii Hawksbill Hazard Description Hazardous Marine life Hazardous marinelife Head injuries Headaches Health practitioner Healthy Food Heart Attack Heart Health Heart Rate monitor Heart fitness Heart rates Heart rate Heart Heat loss Heat stress Heliox Helium Gas Helium Hematoma Hemodynamic Hepatitis C Hepatitus B Hiatal Hernia High Pressure vessels High pressure hoses High temperatures Hip strength Hip surgery Hippocampus History Hole in the heart Hood Hot Humans Hydrate Hydration Hydrogen Hydroids Hydrostatic pressure Hygiene Hyperbaric Chamber Hyperbaric Oxygen Treatments Hyperbaric Oxygen Hyperbaric research Hyperbaric treatment Hyperbarics Hypertension Hypothermia Hypoxia I-52 found INclusivity IdentiFin Imaging Immersion Immine systems In Water Recompression Increased pressure Indemnity form Indian Ocean Indigo SCuba Indonesia Inert gas Infections Infra red Imaging Inhaca Ocean Alliance Injections Inner ear Instinct Instruction Instructors Insulation Insurance policy Insurance Integrated Physiology International travel International Internship programs Internship Interval training Irritation Irukandji Syndrome Isotta housing Italy Itchy Rash Its OK Jellyfish Jennifer Hayes Jill Heinerth Joanna Wyrebek Joint pain Joshua Journal for Technical Diving Junior Open Water Diver KZN South Coast KZN Karen van den Oever Kate Jonker KateJonker Kelp forests Kenya Kidneys Kids scubadiver Komati Springs KwaZulu Natal LED lights Labour laws Lake Huron Lara Lambiase Laryngospasm Lauren Arthur Leanne Walmsley Learning to dive Leatherbacks Leatherback Legal Network Legal advice Legislation Lembeh Straights Lenses Leslie Lwaney Leukemis Liability Risks Liability releases Liability Life expectancy Lifestyle Lighting Lightroom editing Lights Lionfish Live aboard diving Liveaboard Liver Toxicity Liver diseas Liz Louw Loss of consciousness Lost at sea Low Visability Low blood pressure Low pressure deterioration Low volume masks Lumpsuckers Lung Irritation Lung flexibility Lung function Lung injuries Lung over expansion Lung squeeze Lung surgery Lung MOD MOzambique diving MPA Macro photography Mafia Island Maintenance Malaria Mammalian Dive Response Mammalian effect Manatees Mandarin Fish Marfan syndrome Marine Biologist Marine Biology Marine Mega fauna Marine Science Marine Scientists Marine conservation Marine parks Marine plants Marinelife Marinescience Markus Dirschi Marlin Marne protecte areas Mask clearing Masks Master scuba diver Matty Smith Maximum operating depth Medical Q Medical emergencies Medical forms Medical oxygen Medical questionaire Medical statement Medical team Medicalquestionaires Medicalresearch Medicalstudents Medication Mehgan Heaney-Grier Membership benefits Menopause Menstruation Mermaid Danii Mesophotic Metotrexate Mexico Michael Aw Micro Photography Microbubbles Middle ear pressure Mike Bartick Military front press Military Misool Resort Raja Ampat Mixed Gas Mono Fins Mooring lines More pressure Motion sickness Motionsickness Mount Kilimanjaro Mozambique Muck Diving Muscle pain Mycobacterium marinum NDL limits Narcosis National Geographic Nature Nausea Nautilus Ndibranchs Neck pain Neoprene layers Neuro assessments Neurocognitive research Neurological assessments Neuromotor exercises New Caledonia Nichola Bird Nicorette Nicotine Nitrogen Narcosis Nitrogen build up Nitrox No Decompression Limits No-decompression limits No-decompression Non-nano zinc oxide Non-rebreather Mask Non-smoking Nondiving related illness Nonrebreather masks Normal Air North Sulawesi Nosebleeds Nudibranchs Nuno Gomes Nutrition O2 enriched O2 oxygen provider. O2 providers O2 servicing O2treatments OOxygen maintenance Ocean Alliance Ocean Projects Ocean Research Ocean animals Ocean clean up Ocean community Ocean conservation Ocean mammals Ocean migrations Ocean pollution Oceangate Octopus Oil contamination Olive Ridley Open Ocean Open water divers Operatorethics Optical focus Oral contraseptives Orbital implants Oronasal mask Osteonecrosis Otters Out and about Out of air Outer ears Outreach Overhead Envirenments Oxygen Administration Oxygen Cylinder Oxygen Units Oxygen deficit Oxygen deicit Oxygen dificiency Oxygen ears Oxygen equipment Oxygen explosions Oxygen kit Oxygen masks Oxygen providers Oxygen safety Oxygen supplies Oxygen supply Oxygen systems Oxygen therapy Oxygen treatment Oxygen P J Prinsloo PADI Freedivers PFI PFOs PFO PJP Tech PTSD Paper Nautilus Paralysis Parentalsupervision Part 3 Partner Training Patent foramen ovale PatentForamen Ovale Pemba Island Peri-peri Divers Perspective Peter Lindholm Philippine Islands Philippines Phillipines Photographers Photographer Photography tips Photography Physical Fitness Physioball Physiology Physiotherapy Pills Pilot Whale Pistons Planning Plastic pollution Plastic Plimsoll Interface Pneumonia Pneumothorax Poison Polka Dot Bat fish Pollution Pool Diving Pool chemicals Pool maintenance Pool workout Pools Post traumatic Post-dive Potuguese man-of-war Pre-dive Predive check Pregnancy Pregnant divers Preparation Prepared diver Press Release Preventions ProDive Port Elizabeth Product scuba nudi Professional rights Protection Provider course Psycological Pulmanologist Pulmonary Barotrauma Pulmonary Bleb Pulmonary Edema Pulmonary Hypertension Pulse Punture wounds Pure Air Pure Apnea Purge Quit Smoking Q RAID South Africa RCAP REEF RMV Radio communications Range of motion Rashes Rebreather diving Rebreatherdive Recces Rechargeable batteries. Recompression chamber Recompression treatment Recompression Recycle Red SEA Reef Chcek Reef Conservation Reef Environmental Education Foundation Reef protection Reef safe Reef surveyors Refractive correction Regal Sea Goddesses Regulator failure Regulators Regulator Remote areas Remote islands Renewable Report incidents Rescue Divers Rescue Procedure Rescue breathing Rescue breaths Rescue diver Rescue skills Rescue skill Rescue training Rescue Research Respitory Minute Volume Resume diving Return To Diving Return to diving Reuseable items Rhinopias Risk Assessments Risk assesments Risk assessment Risk elements Risk management Risks of Seizures Riviera Maya Roatan Marine Park Roatan Ronblom SABS 019 SAC SMB SRC SafariLive Safe diving practices Safety Concerns Safety Gear Safety Stop Safety in Air Safety SaherSafe Barrier Salisbury Island Salish Seas Salty Wanderer Sanitising Sanne Volja Sara Andreotti Sara Banderby Sara Campbell Sardine Run Sargassum sea Saturation Diving Save our seas Schrimps Science Scoliosis Scombroid Poisoning Scorpion Fish Scuba Air Quality Scuba Guru Scuba Injury Scuba Instructor Scuba children Scuba divers Scuba dive Scuba diving Scuba education Scuba health Scubalearners Scubalife Sea Horses Sea Turtles Sea slugs Seagrass Sealcolonies Sealife Seals Seasickness Seaweeds Seaweed Sea Self Rescue Send Nudi Shallow Water Blackout Shallow dives Shark Protection Shark Research Shark conservation Shark diving Sharks Shipwrecks Shit Happens Shore entries Shoulder strength Sidemount Sideplank Signs and Symptoms Silty bottoms Sit-ups Sixgill Sharks Skills in action Skin Bends Skin outbreak Skin rash Smart phone photography Snells Window Snorkeling Snorkels Social Distancing Sodwana Bay Solomon Islands Sonnier bank South Africa Southern Sea Otters SpareAir Special forces units Sperm Whales Spinal Bend Spinal bends Spinal cord DCS Spinal dura Spinal pain Spinner dolphins Spleen Splits Sports medicine Squeezes Squid Run Stability exercise Stage cylinder Standars Statin Mediction Stay Fit Stay Warm Steel Stefan Randig Stents Step ups Stephen Frink Stepping up Stobes Stockton Rush Stonetown Stretch band exercise Stretch bands Strobe Lighting Strobes Stroke Submerge tech Submerged Sudafed Sulawesi Sun protection Sun screen Sunscreen Supplemental oxygen Surface Air Consumption Surface Consumption Rate Surface Marker Buoys Surface supplied Air Surfaced Surfers Surgeries Surgery Suspension training Swim Fitness Swimmers health SwimmingIn wateractivities Swimming Sylvia Earl Symbiosis Symbiosys TRavel safety Tabata protocol Talya Davidoff Tanzania Tattoes Tec Clark Tech diving Technical Diving Technical diver Technical divng Temperature Homeostatis The Bends The Cavettes The Titanic Wreck The Wild Coast The greatest Shoal The silent world The truth Thermal Notions Thermoregulation Thomas Peschak Thresher shark Thunder Bay National Marine Sanctuary Tides Tips and trick Tonga Tooth squeeze Transplants Trashbag Trauma Travel destinations Travel smarter Travel tips Travel Tropical Coastal Management Tulamben Tullum Tulum. Tunnelling Turks and Caicos Turtles Tweezers Ultrsound Umkomaas Unconscious diver Unconsciousness Underground waterways Underground work Underseaa world Underwaater Photos Underwater Photography Underwater Photograper Underwater Photograpgraphy Underwater Photographer Manirelife Underwater Research Underwater camera Underwater critters Underwater floral Gardens Underwater hockey Underwater imaging Underwater lights Underwater photographer Underwater photography Underwater photos Underwater pho Underwater sound Underwatercommunications Underwater University of Stellenbosch Unresponsive Urchins Urinary retention. VGE Vacations Vaccines Vagus nerve Valsalva manoeuvers Valve stem seals Vape Vaping Vasopressors Vasvagal Syncope Venous gas emboli Ventilate Venting Verna van Schak Veterinarian Videography Vincenzo Ferri. Virus infections Volatile fuels WWII wrecks War stories Washout treatments Wastewater Watchman device Water Resistance Water Weakness Weigang Xu Weights West Papua Western Cape Diving Wet Lenses Wet diving bell Wetsuit fitting Wetsuites Wetsuits White balance Whitetpped Sharks Wide Angle Photos Wide angles Wildlife park Wildlife Winter Wits Underwater Club Wolf Eels Woman and diving Woman in diving Womans health Woman Women In Diving SA Women and Diving Women in Freediving Women in diving Womens Month Womens health Work of Breathing Workout World Deeepst Dive Record World Records Wound dressings Wreck History Wreck divers Wreck dive Wreck diving Wreck exploration Wreckdiving Wrecks Wrist technology Yoga Youth diver Zandile Ndholvu Zanzibar Zoology Zooplankton \ Blennies abrasion absolute pressure acoustic neuroma excision adverse seas air-cushioned alert diver altitude alveolar walls anemia antibiotics anticoagulants antiseptics bandages barodontalgia bent-over barbell rows bioassays biodiversity bloodcells blue carbon body art breathing air calories burn canal blockage carbon dioxide toxicity cardiovascular career developments cerebrospinal fluid cervical spine checklist chemo port children child chronic obstructive pulmonary disease clearances closed circuit scuba compressed gass coral growth corrective lenses currents cuts cylinder filling dead lift decompression algorithms decongestants decongestion deep dive training dehydration discovery dive clubs dive injuries dive medicing dive ready child dive reflex dive tribe divecomputers diver in distress diver rescue diver training dive diving attraction diving hoods doctors dolphns domestic travel dri-suits drowning dry mucous membranes dry suits dry e-cigarettes ear spaces elearning electrolyte imbalance electroytes emergency action plans emergency assessment emergency training environmentally friendly equalising equalizing exposure injuries eyes fEMAL DIVERS fire rescue fish watching fitness Balance fitnes flexible tubing frediving freedivers gas bubble gas poisoning gastric acid gene expression health heartburn histidine hospital humidity hypobaric hypoxia immersion and bubble formation immersion pulmonary edema (IPE informal education isopropyl alcohol jaundice join DAN knee lanyard laparoscopic surgery life jackets longevity lower stress lox oxygen level lungs malaise mamalian effect marielife marine pathogens medical issues medical procedures medical risk assesment medications mental challenge mental preparedness micro-organisims micro minor illness mucous membranes multilineage dysplasia myelodysplasia nasal steroids nasal near drowning nematocysts neurological newdivers nitrogen bubbles no tanx off-gassed operating theatre operations orthopeadic otitis media out planting outgas pain parameters perforation phillippines phrenic nerve physical challenges pinched nerves plasters pneumoperitoneum polyester-TPU polyether-TPU post dive posture prescription mask preserve prevention professional emergency responders proper equalization psychoactive pulmonary barotrauma. pulmonary injury. pulmunary barotrauma pure oxygen radiation rebreather mask rebreathers retinal detachment risk areas safety stops saturation scissors scuba equipment scuba sea goddesses single use sinus infections situationalawarenes smoking snorkeling. spearfishing sterilising stings strength sub-aquatic sunscreen lotion swimmers ears tattoo care tecnical diver thermal protection tissue damage toxicity trachea training trimix unified standards upcycled upwelling virtual coach vision impaired vomiting warmers water quality zinc oxide