Sight Search

On a Mission: Critter hunting in Washington’s Salish Sea

Elusive and enigmatic, sixgill sharks grow to more than 15 feet long. Millions of nondivers in the Seattle–Tacoma area are blissfully unaware of these magnificent monsters in their midst. Photo by Brandon Cole
CREDITS | Text and Images By Brandon Cole

Critter hunting in Washington’s Salish Sea

 There’s a big difference between casual, submerged sightseeing — happy-snapping pictures of whatever you run across while blowing bubbles — and diving dedicated to carefully searching select sites, sometimes during a particular season or time of day, to find and photograph predefined species. It’s possible to luck out while wandering about, but success more often involves a plan.

 The Salish Sea crosses the U.S.–Canada border, but its Washington portion encompasses Puget Sound, Hood Canal and the Strait of Juan de Fuca, which connects everything to the vast Pacific Ocean. It is also my local diving headquarters. The cool, plankton-rich waters hold a wealth of critters that underwater image-makers consider high-value targets. When something’s hot, it pays to devote bottom time to marine life currently basking in the limelight.

 Let’s survey an eclectic mix of five portfolio-worthy photo subjects beneath the waves of the Evergreen State. Along the way, I’ll drop hints on where, when and how to prosper in this living treasure scavenger hunt.

 Giant Pacific Octopus

 Some years are better than others for critter hunting. Animal populations boom and bust, and ocean conditions vary widely. The winter of 2020–2021 was excellent for giant Pacific octopus (Enteroctopus dofleini).

 I observed them out of their dens at Sunrise Beach Park, Day Island Wall and many spots in Hood Canal. The number of female octopuses brooding eggs made it extra special. To have a surplus of them at the same time on the same reef, tenderly caring for their offspring and valiantly guarding them against predators, was extraordinary. I executed six dives to document the mothers cleaning their eggs with tentacle caresses and oxygenating them with jets of water from their siphons.
An octopus is out for a stroll.
Flagpole, Octopus Hole and Sund Rock in Hood Canal proved to be octopus gold mines. Having a slate to map den locations and note information was helpful, as were the generous local divers who shared their sightings.

Bluntnose Sixgill Sharks

Hexanchus griseus favors very deep water, but you can encounter this prehistoric shark (modern shark species have five gill slits) at a few venues in the Salish Sea. Encouraged by social media reports of recent sightings, I prepped my gear and drove 300 miles from my landlocked home in eastern Washington to Puget Sound.

It took three long decompression dives over three nights until a 7-foot adolescent bluntnose sixgill shark materialized from the blackness 95 feet down and southwest of the “deep line” at Redondo Beach. The creature transfixed me — utterly alien, graceful and ponderous at the same time. I stared in amazement through my camera into its metallic eyes. Three more sharks made brief appearances on that dive. It had been years since I had last seen a sixgill, and here I was in the presence of multiple.

The sharks’ seasonal appearance here in July and August may relate to salmon fishing and crabbing in the area. Divers have also seen sixgills at Rosie’s Ravine in Hood Canal.

Pacific Spiny Lumpsuckers

Never underestimate the excitement that weird little fish can generate. During winter, a hard-core subset of Seattle- and Tacoma-area divers schedules regular nighttime shore dives that feature the bug-eyed, pouty-lipped Pacific spiny lumpsucker (Eumicrotremus orbis). Ranging from pea-sized to as big as a jumbo tater tot, they are covered with conical protuberances — the lumps — instead of scales and have a suction-cup disc — the sucker — on their undersides to stick to algae and rocks. Their colors range from yellow to green, brown or red.
Cuteness personified, lumpsuckers are comically inept swimmers that feed on tiny crustaceans.
Finding lumpsuckers can be difficult due to their size, camouflage coloration and the wide-bladed kelp and tufts of algae in which they lurk, but practice helps you develop a knack for spotting them. In the words of one regular eagle-eyed shooter, Redondo Beach in central Puget Sound is “primo lumpy land.” She kindly taught me to get low and go slow while exploring the sandy slope south of the boat ramp. The sweet spot is between 10 and 15 feet deep, and winter delivers the most sightings and larger fish. Three Tree Point is another smart choice for a lumpsucker quest.

Wolf Eels

Wolf eels share local celebrity status with the eight-armed invertebrates mentioned above. It’s not uncommon to encounter both animals on the same dive while exploring rocky reefs and walls at many locales in Washington. Wolfies have a panache that more than compensates for their shortcomings in the beauty department. Like frogfish in the tropics, wolf eels entice me to photograph them even when not on my agenda.

I have a handful of go-to sites for dedicated eel searches. Skyline, south of Anacortes, is typically home to strikingly orange juvenile wolf eels measuring 1 to 2 feet long. Look for them snaking about in the sea cucumbers and algae above 30 feet. I have also found little guys peeking out of holes in Keystone Jetty’s wooden pier pilings and coiled up inside old glass bottles at Redondo.
Adult male wolf eels are usually gray to white with a large fleshy face, while females are darker, smaller and more svelte.
You’re almost guaranteed to spy numerous adult wolfies in the rock piles at Sunrise Beach Park, Flagpole and Sund Rock. During winter, you might spot females wrapped around a volleyball-sized clutch of pink eggs. My favorite spot for quality encounters with wolf eels is Day Island Wall, which you can reach by shore or boat. The ledges and walls between 40 and 100 feet accommodate many wolf eels. Be sure to go during slack tide, ideally on a small exchange of less than 3 knots, to avoid the strong currents in the Tacoma Narrows.
 
Rock Greenlings

The rock greenling (Hexagrammos lagocephalus) is another critter that, like the sixgill shark, appears more frequently on bucket lists than in logbooks. Few divers have seen one, even though the species is not rare. They are simply hard to find and live where most divers never explore. They prefer shallow, rocky habitats battered by waves and surge and overgrown with thick, mixed kelp, eelgrass and algae. Their colors and patterns help them blend masterfully with the surroundings. Some rock greenlings may reside in the same area for years, which is one of the few advantages searchers have. The Strait of Juan de Fuca, specifically Salt Creek Recreation Area and Sekiu Jetty, have resident greenlings just waiting to be discovered in only 5 to 15 feet of water.
Calm days with minimal swells and wind chop are best to search for rock greenlings.
Even if you don’t see one, you’re sure to enjoy the abundant and diverse marine life on these stellar Washington shore dives. Monitor weather forecasts for calm conditions, and be prepared for a serious search once submerged. It took me two two-hour dives to find a greenling last year. Marking its location with a small surface marker buoy allowed me to easily return with my third tank to the exact spot in the bewildering maze of algae-covered rocks to photograph this spectacular fish in earnest. All the shivering, hard work and planning to reach this moment faded away.
An aerial view of Tongue Point at Salt Creek Recreation Area in the Strait of Juan de Fuca
How to Dive It

Conditions: Washington is a year-round diving destination. Puget Sound’s inland waters are sheltered from the Pacific Ocean’s storms and swell, while the Strait of Juan de Fuca is more exposed. Strong winds can develop throughout the region. Currents can be nonexistent to strong, depending on location and time of year. Some sites can be dived almost any time, while others require slack on small exchanges for safety and comfort.

Water temperatures range from the low-40s°F at depth in winter to the mid-50s°F in late summer. Thermoclines and freshwater layers can be present, especially after heavy rains. Drysuits allow you to customize undergarment thickness to your thermal tolerance. Water clarity is best in late fall and winter, with visibility between 20 and 50 feet. In spring and summer, plankton reduces the visibility, but the water may be clear beneath a murky surface layer.

There are dive sites suitable for all skill levels and interests: deep walls, shallow bays, muck dives, rocky reefs, jetties, pier pilings, purpose-sunk artificial reefs, seamounts and pinnacles. Many dive sites are accessible from shore.

Support: Many full-service dive shops in the region offer gas fills, gear and training, and area dive clubs and informal groups meet up for fun dives. The local diving community is active, supportive and willing to introduce visiting divers to the Salish Sea. Boat charters and private guide services are available.

Categories

 2022
immersion and bubble formation 232bar AGE Accident management Accidents Acid reflux Acute ailments Advanced courses Rescue diver Aerobic exercise After anaesthesia Aged divers Air Quality Air exchange centre Air hose failure Air supply Airway control Air Alert Diver Magazine Alternate Airsources use Alternater Air Source Alternative gas mix Altitude changes Altitude diving Altitude sickness Aluminium Oxide Ama divers Amino acids Amos Nachoum Anaerobic Metabolism Animal life Annual renewal Antarctica Anxiety Apex predators Apnea Apnoea Aquatic creatures Aquatic life Aquatics and Scuba Diving Archaeology Argonaut octopus Argonauts Argon Arrythmia Arterial Gas Embolisms Arterial gas embolism Arthroscopic surgery Aspirin Audible signals Aurel hygiene Australian Flat backed BCD BHP BLS BWARF Back adjustment Back pain Back treatment Backextensors Badages Bag valve mask Bahamas Balancing Bandaids Barbell back squat Barometric pressure Barotrauma Basic Life Support Batteries Beach entry Becky Kaga Schott Becky Kagan Schott Bench press Benign prostate hyperplasia Benzophenones Beth Neale Beyond Standards Bilikiki Tours Biophysics Black Blood flow Blood pressure Blood thinners Blue Desert Blue Wilderness Blue economy Blurred vision Boat diving Boat safety Boesmans gat Boesmansgat Bonaire Bone fractures Bouyancy compensators Bouyancy controls Boyle's Law Boyle\'s Law Bradycardia Brain Brandon Cole Breast Cancer Breath Hold Diving Breath hold diver Breath holding Breath hold Breath-hold Breathing Gas Breathing gas contamination Breathing Breathold diving Bright Bank Broken bones Bruising Bubble detection Bubbleformation Buddy Exercise Buddy checks Buoyancy Burnshield CCR CGASA CMAS CO2 COVID-19 Updates COVID-19 COVID CPR Cabin pressure Caissons diseas California Camera equipment Camera settings Cameras Cancer Remission Cancer treatments Cancer Cannabis and diving Cannabis Cape Town Dive Festival Cape Town Dive Sites Cape Town CapeTown Carbon Monoxide Carbon dioxide Cardiac research Cardiaccompromise Cardio health Cardiological Cardiomyopathy Caribbean Carmel Bay Catalina Island Cave diving Cave exploration Cave Challenging Environments Chamber Safety Chamber science Chamber treatment Charging batteries Charles' Law Charles\' Law Charles\\\' Law Charles\\\\\\\' Law Charles\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\' Law Charlie Warland Chemotherapy Chest compressions Children diving Chiropractic Chlorophll Chokka Run Christina Mittermeier Citizen Conservation Citizen sciences Citizen science Cleaning products Closed Circuit Rebreathers Cmmunity partnership Coastal diving Coastalexcursion Cold Water Cold care ColdWater Cold Commercial Fishing Commercial diving Commercial schools Common consideration Common understanding Communication Composition Compressed Air Compressed gas Compressor operators Compressors Concussion Congestive heart Faiture Consercation Conservation Photographer Conservation photography Conservation Contact lenses Contaminants Contaminated air Coral Conservation Coral Reefs Coral Restoration Coral bleaching Coral preservation CoralGroupers Corals Core strength Corona virus Coro Costamed Chamber Courtactions Cozumel Cradiac valvular Cristina Mittermeier Crohns disease Crowns Crystal build up Crystallizing hoses Cutaneous decompression Cylinder Ruptures Cylinder capacity Cylinder handwheel Cylinder valves Cylinder weight DAN Courses DAN Profile DAN Researchers DAN medics DAN members DAN report DANTraining DCI DCS Decompressions sickness DCS theories DCS DEMP DM training DNA DReams Dalton's Law Dalton\'s Law Dalton\\\'s Law Dalton\\\\\\\'s Law Dalton\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\'s Law Danel Wenzel Dangerous Marinelife Dauin island David Doubilet Dean's Blue Hole Dean\'s Blue Hole Deco dives Decompression Illness Decompression Sickness Decompression Stress Decompression chamber Decompression illsnes Decompression limits Decompression treatment Decompression Decorator crabs Deep diving Deep water exploration Deepest SCUBA Dive Delayed Offgassing Dental Depth limits Dever Health Diagnosis Diaphragms Diopter Diseases Disinfection Dive Buddy Dive Chamber Dive Computer Dive Destinations Dive Destination Dive H Dive Industry Dive Instruction Dive Instructor Dive Medical Form Dive Medical Dive Practices Dive Professionals Dive Pros Dive Rescue Dive Research Dive Safari Dive Safety Tips Dive South Africa Dive Training Dive Travel Wakatobi Dive Travel Dive accidents Dive buddies Dive computers Dive courses Dive cylinder Aluminium Dive excursions Dive exercise Dive exeriences Dive experience Dive fitness Dive gear Dive heallth Dive health Dive in Africa Dive medicals Dive medicines Dive medicine Dive operators Dive opportunities Dive planning Dive procedures Dive safety 101 Dive safety Dive safe Dive skills Dive staff Dive travels DiveLIVE DiveTravel Diveleader training Diveleaders Diver Health Diver Profile Diver Travel Diver education Diver infliencers Diver on surface Diver recall Diverover 50 Divers Alert Diversafety Divesites Diving Divas Diving Fatalities Diving Kids Diving Programs Diving Trauma Diving career Diving emergencies Diving emergency management Diving fit Diving guidelines Diving injuries Diving suspended Diving Dizziness Dolphins Domestic Donation Doug Perrine Dowels Dr Rob Schneider Drift diving Drysuit diving Drysuit valves Drysuits Dynamic environment Dyperbaric medicines EAPs EAP EMS Ear barotrauma Ear pressure Ear wax Ears injuries Eco friendly Ecowise Education Electronic Emergency Action Plan Emergency Planning Emergency action planning Emergency decompression Emergency plans Emergency treatments Emergency underwater Oxygen Recompression Emergency Endurance Envenomations Enviromental Protection Environmental factors Environmental impact Environmental managment Environmental stewardship Equalisation Equalization Equipment care Equipment failure Equipment inspection Equipment significance Evacuations Evacuation Evaluations Even Breath Evironmetaly friendly Exercise Exercising Exhaustion Exposure Protection Extended divetime Extinguisher Extreme treatments Eye injuries FAQ Factor V Leiden Failures FalseBay Diving Fatigue Faulty equipment Female divers Fetus development Filling stations Fillings Fire Coral Fire Safety Fire extinguisher Firefighting First Aid Equipment First Aid Kit First Aid Trainig First Aid Training First Aid kits First Aid Fish Identification Fish Life Fish Fit to dive Fitness Levels Fitness Training Fitness evaluation Fitness to dive Fitnesstrainng Fitness Flying Focus lights Foundations Fractures Francesca Diaco Francois Burman Fred Buyle Fredive Free Student cover Free diving Free flow Freedive INstructor Freedive Training Freediver Freediving Instructors Freediving performance Freediving Gar Waterman Gas Density Gas consumption Gas emboli Gas laws Gas mixes GasPerformance Gases Gass bubbles Gastoeusophagus Gastric bypass Gastroenterologist Gear Servicing Germs Geyer Bank Giant Kelp Forest Giant Kelp Giant stride Girls that Scba Gobies Gordon Hiles Great White Sharks Green sea turtle Greenlings Guinness World Record Gutt irritations HBOT HCV HELP HIRA HMLI HMS Britanica Haemorhoid treatment Hand signals Hawaii Hawksbill Hazard Description Hazardous Marine life Hazardous marinelife Head injuries Headaches Health practitioner Heart Attack Heart Health Heart Rate monitor Heart fitness Heart rates Heart rate Heart Heat stress Heliox Helium Hematoma Hemodynamic Hepatitis C Hepatitus B Hiatal Hernia High Pressure vessels High pressure hoses High temperatures Hip strength Hip surgery Hippocampus History Hole in the heart Hood Hot Humans Hydrate Hydration Hydrogen Hydroids Hydrostatic pressure Hygiene Hyperbaric Chamber Hyperbaric Oxygen Treatments Hyperbaric Oxygen Hyperbaric research Hyperbaric treatment Hyperbarics Hypertension Hypothermia Hypoxia I-52 found INclusivity IdentiFin Imaging Immersion Immine systems In Water Recompression Increased pressure Indemnity form Indian Ocean Indigo SCuba Indonesia Inert gas Infections Infra red Imaging Injections Inner ear Instinct Instruction Instructors Insurance Integrated Physiology International travel International Internship programs Internship Interval training Irritation Irukandji Syndrome Isotta housing Itchy Rash Jellyfish Jill Heinerth Joint pain Junior Open Water Diver KZN South Coast KZN Karen van den Oever Kate Jonker KateJonker Kenya Kidneys Kids scubadiver Komati Springs KwaZulu Natal LED lights Labour laws Lake Huron Laryngospasm Lauren Arthur Learning to dive Leatherback Legal Network Legal advice Legislation Lembeh Straights Lenses Leukemis Liability Risks Liability releases Liability Life expectancy Lifestyle Lighting Lightroom editing Lionfish Live aboard diving Liveaboard Liver Toxicity Liver diseas Liz Louw Loss of consciousness Lost at sea Low Visability Low blood pressure Low pressure deterioration Low volume masks Lumpsuckers Lung Irritation Lung function Lung injuries Lung squeeze Lung surgery Lung MOD MOzambique diving Macro photography Mafia Island Maintenance Malaria Mammalian Dive Response Mammalian effect Mandarin Fish Marfan syndrome Marine Biology Marine Mega fauna Marine Science Marine Scientists Marine conservation Marine parks Marine plants Marinelife Marinescience Marlin Mask clearing Masks Master scuba diver Maximum operating depth Medical Q Medical emergencies Medical questionaire Medical statement Medicalresearch Medicalstudents Medication Mehgan Heaney-Grier Membership benefits Menopause Menstruation Mermaid Danii Mesophotic Mexico Michael Aw Microbubbles Middle ear pressure Mike Bartick Military front press Misool Resort Raja Ampat Mixed Gas Mono Fins Mooring lines More pressure Motion sickness Motionsickness Mount Kilimanjaro Mozambique Muscle pain Mycobacterium marinum NDL limits Narcosis National Geographic Nausea Nautilus Ndibranchs Neck pain Neoprene layers Neuro assessments Neurocognitive research Neurological assessments Neuromotor exercises Nichola Bird Nitrogen Narcosis Nitrogen build up Nitrox No Decompression Limits No-decompression limits No-decompression Non-nano zinc oxide Non-rebreather Mask Nondiving related illness Nonrebreather masks Normal Air North Sulawesi Nosebleeds Nudibranchs Nuno Gomes O2 oxygen provider. O2 providers O2 servicing O2treatments OOxygen maintenance Ocean Projects Ocean Research Ocean animals Ocean conservation Ocean migrations Ocean pollution Oceangate Octopus Oil contamination Olive Ridley Open Ocean Open water divers Optical focus Oral contraseptives Orbital implants Oronasal mask Osteonecrosis Out and about Out of air Outer ears Outreach Overhead Envirenments Oxygen Administration Oxygen Cylinder Oxygen Units Oxygen deficit Oxygen deicit Oxygen dificiency Oxygen ears Oxygen equipment Oxygen kit Oxygen masks Oxygen providers Oxygen supplies Oxygen supply Oxygen systems Oxygen therapy Oxygen P J Prinsloo PADI Freedivers PFI PFO PJP Tech Paper Nautilus Paralysis Parentalsupervision Part 3 Partner Training Patent foramen ovale Pemba Island Peri-peri Divers Perspective Peter Lindholm Philippine Islands Philippines Phillipines Photographers Photography tips Photography Physical Fitness Physioball Physiology Physiotherapy Pills Pilot Whale Pistons Planning Plastic Plimsoll Interface Pneumonia Pneumothorax Poison Pollution Pool Diving Pool chemicals Pool maintenance Pool workout Pools Post-dive Potuguese man-of-war Pre-dive Predive check Pregnancy Pregnant divers Preparation Prepared diver Press Release Preventions ProDive Port Elizabeth Professional rights Provider course Psycological Pulmanologist Pulmonary Barotrauma Pulmonary Bleb Pulmonary Edema Pulmonary Hypertension Pulse Punture wounds Pure Apnea Purge RAID South Africa RCAP REEF Radio communications Range of motion Rashes Rebreather diving Rebreatherdive Rechargeable batteries. Recompression chamber Recompression treatment Recompression Recycle Reef Chcek Reef Conservation Reef Environmental Education Foundation Reef safe Reef surveyors Refractive correction Regal Sea Goddesses Regulator failure Regulators Regulator Remote areas Remote islands Renewable Report incidents Rescue Divers Rescue Procedure Rescue breathing Rescue breaths Rescue diver Rescue skills Rescue skill Rescue training Rescue Research Resume diving Return To Diving Return to diving Reuseable items Risk Assessments Risk assesments Risk assessment Risk elements Risk management Risks of Seizures Roatan Marine Park Roatan SABS 019 SMB SafariLive Safe diving practices Safety Concerns Safety Gear Safety Stop Safety in Air Safety SaherSafe Barrier Salish Seas Salty Wanderer Sanitising Sara Andreotti Sardine Run Sargassum sea Saturation Diving Save our seas Schrimps Science Scoliosis Scombroid Poisoning Scorpion Fish Scuba Air Quality Scuba Guru Scuba Injury Scuba Instructor Scuba children Scuba divers Scuba dive Scuba education Scuba health Scubalearners Scubalife Sea Horses Sea Turtles Sea slugs Seagrass Sealcolonies Sealife Seals Seasickness Seaweeds Seaweed Sea Self Rescue Shallow dives Shark Protection Shark Research Shark conservation Shark diving Sharks Shipwrecks Shore entries Shoulder strength Sideplank Signs and Symptoms Silty bottoms Sit-ups Sixgill Sharks Skills in action Skin Bends Skin outbreak Skin rash Smart phone photography Snells Window Snorkeling Snorkels Social Distancing Sodwana Bay Solomon Islands Sonnier bank South Africa SpareAir Sperm Whales Spinal Bend Spinal bends Spinal cord DCS Spinal dura Spinal pain Spinner dolphins Splits Sports medicine Squeezes Squid Run Stability exercise Standars Statin Mediction Stay Fit Steel Stents Step ups Stephen Frink Stepping up Stockton Rush Stonetown Stretch band exercise Stretch bands Strobe Lighting Strobes Stroke Submerge tech Submerged Sudafed Sulawesi Sun protection Sunscreen Supplemental oxygen Surface Marker Buoys Surface supplied Air Surfaced Surgeries Surgery Suspension training Swim Fitness Swimmers health SwimmingIn wateractivities Swimming Symbiosis Symbiosys TRavel safety Tabata protocol Talya Davidoff Tanzania Tattoes Tec Clark Technical Diving Technical divng The Bends The Titanic Wreck The Wild Coast The greatest Shoal The truth Thermal Notions Thermoregulation Thomas Peschak Thunder Bay National Marine Sanctuary Tides Tips and trick Tonga Tooth squeeze Transplants Travel destinations Travel smarter Travel tips Travel Tropical Coastal Management Tunnelling Turks and Caicos Turtles Tweezers Ultrsound Umkomaas Unconscious diver Unconsciousness Underground work Underseaa world Underwaater Photos Underwater Photography Underwater Photograper Underwater Photograpgraphy Underwater Photographer Manirelife Underwater Research Underwater critters Underwater floral Gardens Underwater hockey Underwater imaging Underwater photographer Underwater photography Underwater pho Underwater sound Underwatercommunications Underwater University of Stellenbosch Unresponsive Urinary retention. VGE Vacations Vaccines Vagus nerve Valsalva manoeuvers Valve stem seals Vape Vaping Vasopressors Vasvagal Syncope Venous gas emboli Ventilate Venting Verna van Schak Videography Virus infections Volatile fuels WWII wrecks War stories Washout treatments Wastewater Watchman device Water Resistance Water Weakness Weigang Xu Weights West Papua Western Cape Diving Wet Lenses Wet diving bell Wetsuit fitting Wetsuites Wetsuits White balance Whitetpped Sharks Wide Angle Photos Wide angles Wildlife park Wildlife Winter Wits Underwater Club Wolf Eels Woman and diving Woman in diving Womans health Woman Women In Diving SA Women and Diving Women in diving Womens Month Womens health Work of Breathing Workout World Deeepst Dive Record World Records Wound dressings Wreck History Wreck divers Wreck dive Wreck diving Wreck exploration Wreckdiving Wrecks Yoga Youth diver Zandile Ndholvu Zanzibar Zoology Zooplankton \ Blennies abrasion absolute pressure acoustic neuroma excision adverse seas air-cushioned alert diver altitude alveolar walls anemia antibiotics anticoagulants antiseptics bandages barodontalgia bent-over barbell rows bioassays biodiversity bloodcells body art breathing air calories burn canal blockage carbon dioxide toxicity cardiovascular career developments cerebrospinal fluid cervical spine checklist chemo port children child chronic obstructive pulmonary disease clearances closed circuit scuba coral growth corrective lenses currents cuts cylinder filling dead lift decompression algorithms decongestants decongestion dehydration dive injuries dive medicing dive ready child dive reflex dive tribe divecomputers diver in distress diver rescue diver training dive diving attraction doctors domestic travel dri-suits drowning dry mucous membranes dry suits dry e-cigarettes ear spaces elearning electrolyte imbalance electroytes emergency action plans emergency assessment emergency training environmentally friendly equalising equalizing exposure injuries eyes fEMAL DIVERS fire rescue fish watching fitness Balance fitnes flexible tubing frediving freedivers gas bubble gas poisoning gastric acid gene expression health heartburn histidine hospital humidity hypobaric hypoxia immersion and bubble formation immersion pulmonary edema (IPE informal education isopropyl alcohol jaundice join DAN knee laparoscopic surgery life jackets longevity lower stress lox oxygen level malaise marielife marine pathogens medical issues medical procedures medical risk assesment medications mental challenge mental preparedness micro-organisims micro minor illness mucous membranes multilineage dysplasia myelodysplasia nasal steroids nasal near drowning nematocysts neurological newdivers nitrogen bubbles off-gassed operating theatre operations orthopeadic otitis media out planting outgas pain perforation phillippines phrenic nerve physical challenges pinched nerves plasters pneumoperitoneum polyester-TPU polyether-TPU post dive posture prescription mask preserve prevention proper equalization psychoactive pulmonary barotrauma. pulmonary injury. pulmunary barotrauma radiation rebreather mask rebreathers retinal detachment risk areas safety stops saturation scissors scuba equipment scuba sea goddesses single use sinus infections situationalawarenes smoking snorkeling. spearfishing sterilising stings strength sub-aquatic sunscreen lotion swimmers ears tattoo care tecnical diver thermal protection tissue damage toxicity training trimix unified standards upwelling vision impaired vomiting warmers water quality zinc oxide