Sight Search

Answering the Call

The Marine photography of Thomas Peschak

A prototype electromagnetic shark-deterring surfboard gets a test run at South Africa’s Aliwal Shoal Marine Protected Area. The device may help manage future encounters between surfers and sharks. Photo by Thomas Peschak
CREDITS | By Stephen Frink; captions by Thomas Peschak

In Wild Seas, his new book published by National Geographic, Thomas Peschak ponders his career path: “My life as a National Geographic photographer has been socially isolating, emotionally exhausting and physically demanding — but it is the most rewarding pursuit I can imagine. I have cried from loneliness, felt nauseous with fear and cursed in frustration. But every time I thought I was at my limit, I discovered untapped reservoirs of strength, creativity and passion. This is not a job; it’s a calling.”

Earlier in life, Peschak thought his calling was to be a marine biologist. That had been his dream since he was 10 years old, and the only way National Geographic factored in was perhaps to cite his work in one of their articles. His heroes were the marine scientists conducting the research documented by the text, not the photographers making the images that graced the pages.
At Little Farmer’s Cay in the Bahamas, green sea turtles associate the sound of fishers cracking conch shells with a free meal. The conch meat is exported to the U.S. and beyond, while the turtles eagerly eat what is discarded. The fishers’ parents and grandparents regularly caught and ate sea turtles, but today’s generation has a different relationship with these marine reptiles. Tourism is becoming more critical to the survival of outer island communities, and the turtles play an essential part in community tourism projects.
In 1999, when Peschak was a 24-year-old immersed in Ph.D. research on abalone, he had an epiphany. At his favorite bay near Africa’s southernmost tip, he had marked hundreds of individual abalone by gluing numbers to the backs of their shells. He extensively documented their movement and behavior within their kelp-forest home. Months of observation had revealed each one’s unique characteristics. Over a single night, however, poachers took almost all of them, leaving the shells in a lifeless heap on the seafloor. Their flesh, worth $200 a pound, was likely bound for Asian seafood markets. This moment of despair precipitated his career change.

“Abalone Armageddon” is Peschak’s term for a situation so dire that the millions of abalone poached in South Africa each year made extinction in the wild a real possibility. Despite the dangers of illegal harvesting, his statistics and science did not seem to inspire change, but the photographs he took to illustrate his reports began to resonate. Community newspapers and regional magazine began to publish his photos. The images were unrefined compared to his later work, but they reflected his passion as he told a story he knew intimately. His photos made an impact, so he left science to pursue a career as a conservation photographer.
Globally, shark populations have declined dramatically over the past century; some regional studies report declines of more than 90 percent for some species. Oceans without sharks would be like Yellowstone without bears or the Serengeti without lions. This photo shows a single boat’s catch of silky sharks laid out in an orderly grid. The angular puzzle of fins pointed to the sky resembles crosses in a military cemetery.
He loaded his Land Rover and explored 4,000 miles of southern Africa’s coastline with the idea of photographing the marine wilderness. While most photographers there focused on terrestrial safari images, he concentrated on the underwater world. Before South Africa was a mainstream destination for great white sharks and its famed sardine run, Peschak was there with his camera, getting noticed and publishing articles and photos in natural history, dive and travel magazines.

For his real underwater photography breakthrough, he credits not the abalone coverage or the great white sharks he captured feasting on a whale carcass but rather freediving with manta rays in the Maldives in 2008. He describes it as follows:

“I am in a giant vortex of hundreds of feeding manta rays. With 9-foot wingspans, these animals create their own current, delivering a bounty of zooplankton toward their gaping mouths. I am hypnotized by their beauty and gobsmacked by the scale. As I prepare to make another photograph, intense spasms rattle my diaphragm. I’ve stayed down too long; the precious oxygen I hastily inhaled at the surface two minutes before is almost exhausted. My body gives a final warning to return to the surface or risk losing consciousness. As the level of carbon dioxide in my blood increases, my lungs burn as if lined with stinging nettles. But before I can take a breath, I have to ascend 50 feet to the surface through a shifting, Tetris-like puzzle of mantas. Mantas are benign, but during a feeding frenzy they are oblivious to their surroundings. As I ascend, the rays crash into each other like 2,000-pound bumper cars. Eventually, I navigate through the gauntlet of wings, break the surface, and gasp in euphoric relief.”  

As a dive safety publication, Alert Diver always considers the importance of being aware of the potential dangers of freediving and the fatal implications of shallow-water blackout. Peschak obviously survived, and in 2008 some of those photos attracted the attention of Kathy Moran, National Geographic’s senior photo editor. The manta ray feeding orgy at Hanifaru appeared in National Geographic just a year later, and now Peschak has contributed 15 stories over the past 13 years.
I was so tired and cold that sitting in a stream of penguin poo to steal a few minutes of rest was, at the time, a perfectly acceptable option. Despite the foul stench, I was absorbed in reviewing my images. When I looked up 10 minutes later, I was surrounded by a gang of fluffy king penguin chicks that had waddled more than 100 feet to investigate. They were some of the most curious animals I have ever encountered.
Stephen Frink: How do your National Geographic assignments work now? Do they find a topic of interest to their readership and send you off?

Thomas Peschak: Not anymore. The days of sitting around waiting for an assignment are long gone. Instead, I dedicate extensive time and research to finding stories. I might be contemplating 10 ideas, but when one gels, I dive into the preparation. The idea becomes an obsession, and I think of little else. I read hundreds of scientific papers, dozens of books and speak to as many experts as I can find. If the magazine accepts my story pitch, the work may absorb the next two years of my life, so it is not a casual proposition.

The photography, the actual click of the shutter release, is the easiest part. I often have a full year of buildup, planning and imagining what the individual photographs and the visual story arc might look like. No one would torture themselves during the preshoot research phase if they weren’t deeply committed, but I love the detective work. Almost every story I’ve ever done has had a conservation issue at its core, which helps keep me motivated.
A photograph from the 1890s shows a once-massive African penguin colony on Namibia’s Halifax Island in stark contrast to the scene I photographed in 2017. The demand for their guano (bird excrement used for fertilizer) and eggs were principal drivers of the dramatic population decline from more than 100,000 to about 2,000 today. Ongoing overfishing of sardines, the penguins’ preferred prey, and climate change prevent these charismatic seabirds from recovering to historical numbers.
How do you identify a story that needs to be visual and can have an impact on conservation?

I like to go to unfamiliar places and tell stories that others have not told. That’s harder these days because not many places are totally off the radar. Even with a familiar place, I think about approaching a story differently and pioneering a viewpoint. I look at photos every day for a week or two and attempt to find every photograph ever made on the topic. My single-minded objective is to discover how I might do it differently and better.

When I was recently in the Galápagos, I wanted to get better photos than anyone had yet taken, but I felt everything had been seen before. I went there expecting to see certain animals and was not disappointed by the photo opportunities. How would you cover the Galápagos, for example, with that goal in mind?

I once spent a week at Darwin Island photographing nothing but silky sharks rubbing themselves against whale sharks to remove parasites. I shot some hammerhead frames as well, but I knew that I would need to devote most of my time to the whale sharks and that it would be fine if I came home without an iconic hammerhead photograph. If I make just one unique image, that’s an outstanding week on location. For the Galápagos National Geographic article, however, I lived in the islands for six months shooting both terrestrial and marine images. I came home with 15 to 20 iconic images and am pleased with that body of work. I sleep well at night knowing that I could not have worked any harder or prepared more rigorously.
Macaroni penguins climb toward the summit of a sea cliff. This unique penguin nesting and molting site is along the western edge of Marion Island. Despite being nearly 1,200 miles southeast of Cape Town, Marion is South African territory and has an important scientific research station.
Very few clients will support that kind of immersion into a destination these days.

I’m among the few fortunate souls — along with David Doubilet, Brian Skerry and Paul Nicklen — who  get to regularly share our ocean imagery with more than 100 million people. Fifteen stories for National Geographic is a pretty good run for me so far, and I know how immensely fortunate I am. It is not always easy though. I’m 46 now, which may not seem old, but spending 90 percent of your life either researching or shooting on location for an assignment is all-consuming. Nothing comes for free. Telling these stories takes nothing less than a total personal investment. I regularly mentor emerging young photographers; while many of them are extraordinary image makers, few are willing to sacrifice so much to live the life.
A cape gannet flies low over Malgas Island, trying to land as close to its partner and nest as possible. If the bird lands too far away, it will have to run through the crowded colony, enduring a gauntlet of stabbing beaks. These gannets can get intense and vicious when dealing with interlopers.
Tell me a little about your early years. Yours is a unique path, so how did you get here?

I was born in Hamburg, Germany, to adventurous parents who were passionate boaters. I began snorkeling at age 10, and I still freedive for most of my photography. We dived together and got scuba certified as a family.

I was a nerdy kid interested in all things underwater. Jacques Cousteau books and fish ID guides were my obsession, and marine biology became my overriding passion by age 12. At 14 I had my first camera, a Minolta Weathermatic that used 110 cartridge film, but photography hadn’t hooked me yet. Instead I wanted to be a scientist looking at sleeping sharks or diving with Weddell seals in the Antarctic. I was a dive instructor by age 18.
Gray whale mothers in Baja California’s San Ignacio Lagoon once weaponized their powerful tail flukes to smash whaling boats and protect their calves. The scene now could not be more different, and gray whales have made a remarkable comeback. In just a single century, our relationship with them went from being dominated by fear and violence to engaging in mutual curiosity. The whales determine their interactions with boats full of whale-watching enthusiasts and will often surface right next to visitors to have their heads scratched. These interspecific interactions began to occur in the 1970s, and mothers seem to be passing on this new aspect of whale culture to their calves.
After my experience with abalone photography in graduate school, I had one foot firmly in science and one in visual arts. I finally decided to rip off the bandage. Spendng two years as a photo nomad living out of my Land Rover and photographing throughout southern Africa probably set the hook. I had some astonishing adventures. It was different then on the sardine run — for example, you wouldn’t see eight boats on a single baitball. Doug Perrine and I were two of the first photographers to comprehensively document baitball behavior, but he was already underwater photography royalty at that time.

After working six weeks a year for seven years to get the ultimate baitball shots, my best images were from just two baitballs. The sardine run in southern Africa happens in mid-winter when the seas can be rough, and you launch from exposed beaches into visibility affected by river runoff. Many days I’ve spent eight hours at sea and came home with nothing good. But one day in 2007, a Bryde’s whale charged from below, engulfed the entire sardine baitball, breached and crashed back into the water just 3 feet from me. Ninety thousand pounds of whale was an arm’s length away, and I was there to get the picture! My friends on the nearby boat thought the whale had landed on my head, but luckily for me the wave from the breach had pushed me out of the way. Capturing moments like that is what I live for and makes spending eight hours at sea each day with just one photo to show for it worthwhile.

For many stories I spend up to 10 hours a day in the water freediving and observing interesting behaviors from above. When the time is right, I move in to make the photograph. Interacting that way with turtles, seals, whales or dolphins seems more relaxed without using scuba, which can be noisy and intrusive for marine wildlife. Howard and Michele Hall captured their images through long days and patience. While some of their images are now 30 years old, they remain the benchmark for natural history underwater photography. Spending lots of time in the sea and having a deep understanding of animal behavior are essential if you want to make similarly iconic and memorable photographs.

Tell me about your new book, Wild Seas.
Writing and imaging for books is now my true passion. I dive deep into a single subject for an assignment and often get way more images than even a 30-page National Geographic feature needs, so books are a great way for me to tell a more comprehensive story. I’ve created seven books to date, and Wild Seas, published by National Geographic, is the latest. It is a mid-career retrospective with nearly 20 years distilled into a 270-page volume. In addition to my 200 favorite photographs, it tells the story of my transformation from marine biologist to National Geographic photographer. I wanted to reveal the rarely seen trials and tribulations behind the images and vividly recount my adventures exploring some of the wildest ocean locales on our planet.
Great White Shark, South African Coast

When I began work on a book about great white sharks almost 20 years ago, I had no idea it would yield my most well-known image. I worked with scientists at the White Shark Trust for more than 10 months to create novel images of great whites off South Africa. When they struggled to track sharks in the shallows, I suggested using a kayak as a less-obtrusive research platform.

The story of this photograph begins with a perfectly calm sea. I had harnessed myself to the research boat’s tower, precariously leaning over the ocean, making images of the scientists tracking sharks, when a very bold shark dived to the seabed to inspect the kayak from below.

I trained my camera on the nebulous shadow as it slowly transformed into the sleek silhouette of a large great white. When the dorsal fin emerged, I thought I had the shot but hesitated a fraction of a second. At that moment, the researcher in the kayak turned to look behind him, and I hit the shutter. Instead of the scientist tracking the shark, the shark was now tracking the scientist.

I knew the image would be iconic, but I was not prepared for the public response. The photo attracted more than 100,000 visitors to my website in the first 24 hours after I published it. In a world without social media, that was considered viral. But then things took an unexpected turn, as many suspected the photo was a digital fake, and some websites still debate its authenticity. The image is real and was one of the last I took using slide film before transitioning to digital. All versions of this photo come from a high-resolution scan of the slide with no postproduction adjustments.


immersion and bubble formation 232bar AGE Accident management Accidents Acid reflux Acute ailments Aerobic exercise After anaesthesia Aged divers Air Quality Air exchange centre Air hose failure Air supply Airway control Air Alert Diver Magazine Alternate Airsources use Alternater Air Source Alternative gas mix Altitude changes Altitude diving Altitude sickness Aluminium Oxide Ama divers Amino acids Amos Nachoum Anaerobic Metabolism Animal life Annual renewal Anxiety Apnea Apnoea Aquatic creatures Aquatic life Aquatics and Scuba Diving Archaeology Argonaut octopus Argonauts Argon Arterial Gas Embolisms Arterial gas embolism Arthroscopic surgery Aspirin Audible signals Aurel hygiene Australian Flat backed BCD BHP BLS BWARF Back adjustment Back pain Back treatment Backextensors Badages Bag valve mask Bahamas Balancing Bandaids Barbell back squat Barometric pressure Barotrauma Basic Life Support Batteries Beach entry Becky Kagan Schott Bench press Benign prostate hyperplasia Benzophenones Beth Neale Beyond Standards Bilikiki Tours Biophysics Black Blood flow Blood pressure Blood thinners Blue Desert Blue Wilderness Blue economy Blurred vision Boat safety Boesmans gat Boesmansgat Bone fractures Bouyancy compensators Bouyancy controls Boyle's Law Boyle\'s Law Bradycardia Brain Brandon Cole Breast Cancer Breath Hold Diving Breath hold diver Breath holding Breath hold Breath-hold Breathing Gas Breathing gas contamination Breathing Breathold diving Bright Bank Broken bones Bruising Bubbleformation Buddy Exercise Buddy checks Buoyancy Burnshield CGASA CMAS CO2 COVID-19 Updates COVID-19 COVID CPR Cabin pressure Caissons diseas California Camera equipment Camera settings Cameras Cancer Remission Cancer treatments Cancer Cannabis and diving Cannabis Cape Town Dive Festival Cape Town Dive Sites Cape Town CapeTown Carbon Monoxide Carbon dioxide Cardiac research Cardio health Cardiological Cardiomyopathy Caribbean Carmel Bay Catalina Island Cave diving Cave exploration Cave Challenging Environments Chamber Safety Chamber science Chamber treatment Charging batteries Charles' Law Charles\' Law Charles\\\' Law Charles\\\\\\\' Law Charles\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\' Law Charlie Warland Chemotherapy Chest compressions Children diving Chiropractic Chlorophll Chokka Run Christina Mittermeier Citizen Conservation Citizen sciences Citizen science Cleaning products Closed Circuit Rebreathers Cmmunity partnership Coastal diving Coastalexcursion Cold Water Cold care ColdWater Cold Commercial Fishing Commercial diving Commercial schools Composition Compressed Air Compressed gas Compressor operators Compressors Concussion Congestive heart Faiture Consercation Conservation Photographer Conservation photography Conservation Contact lenses Contaminants Contaminated air Coral Conservation Coral Reefs Coral Restoration Coral bleaching CoralGroupers Corals Core strength Corona virus Coro Costamed Chamber Courtactions Cozumel Cradiac valvular Cristina Mittermeier Crohns disease Crowns Crystal build up Crystallizing hoses Cutaneous decompression Cylinder Ruptures Cylinder capacity Cylinder handwheel Cylinder valves Cylinder weight DAN Courses DAN Profile DAN Researchers DAN medics DAN members DAN report DANTraining DCI DCS Decompressions sickness DCS theories DCS DEMP DM training DNA DReams Dalton's Law Dalton\'s Law Dalton\\\'s Law Dalton\\\\\\\'s Law Dalton\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\'s Law Danel Wenzel Dangerous Marinelife Dauin island David Doubilet Dean's Blue Hole Dean\'s Blue Hole Deco dives Decompression Illness Decompression Sickness Decompression Stress Decompression chamber Decompression illsnes Decompression limits Decompression treatment Decompression Decorator crabs Deep diving Deep water exploration Deepest SCUBA Dive Delayed Offgassing Dental Dever Health Diagnosis Diaphragms Diopter Diseases Disinfection Dive Buddy Dive Chamber Dive Computer Dive Destinations Dive H Dive Industry Dive Instruction Dive Instructor Dive Medical Form Dive Medical Dive Practices Dive Pros Dive Rescue Dive Research Dive Safari Dive Safety Tips Dive South Africa Dive Training Dive Travel Wakatobi Dive Travel Dive accidents Dive buddies Dive computers Dive courses Dive cylinder Aluminium Dive excursions Dive exercise Dive exeriences Dive experience Dive fitness Dive gear Dive heallth Dive health Dive in Africa Dive medicals Dive medicines Dive medicine Dive operators Dive opportunities Dive planning Dive procedures Dive safety 101 Dive safety Dive safe Dive skills Dive staff Dive travels DiveLIVE Diveleader training Diveleaders Diver Health Diver Profile Diver Travel Diver infliencers Diver on surface Diver recall Diverover 50 Divers Alert Diversafety Divesites Diving Divas Diving Kids Diving Programs Diving Trauma Diving career Diving emergencies Diving emergency management Diving fit Diving guidelines Diving injuries Diving suspended Diving Dizziness Dolphins Domestic Donation Doug Perrine Dowels Dr Rob Schneider Drift diving Drysuit diving Drysuit valves Drysuits Dynamic environment Dyperbaric medicines EAPs EAP Ear pressure Ear wax Ears injuries Eco friendly Education Electronic Emergency action planning Emergency decompression Emergency plans Emergency underwater Oxygen Recompression Emergency Endurance Envenomations Enviromental Protection Environmental factors Environmental impact Environmental managment Equalisation Equipment care Equipment failure Equipment inspection Equipment significance Evacuations Evacuation Evaluations Even Breath Exercise Exercising Exhaustion Exposure Protection Extended divetime Extinguisher Extreme treatments Eye injuries FAQ Factor V Leiden Failures FalseBay Diving Fatigue Faulty equipment Female divers Fetus development Filling stations Fillings Fire Coral Fire Safety Firefighting First Aid Equipment First Aid Kit First Aid Trainig First Aid Training First Aid kits First Aid Fish Identification Fish Life Fish Fit to dive Fitness Levels Fitness Training Fitness evaluation Fitness to dive Fitnesstrainng Fitness Flying Focus lights Foundations Fractures Francesca Diaco Francois Burman Fred Buyle Fredive Free Student cover Free diving Free flow Freedive INstructor Freedive Training Freediver Freediving Instructors Freediving performance Freediving Gar Waterman Gas Density Gas consumption Gas laws Gas mixes GasPerformance Gases Gass bubbles Gastoeusophagus Gastric bypass Gastroenterologist Gear Servicing Germs Geyer Bank Giant Kelp Forest Giant Kelp Girls that Scba Gobies Gordon Hiles Great White Sharks Green sea turtle Greenlings Guinness World Record Gutt irritations HBOT HCV HELP HIRA HMLI HMS Britanica Haemorhoid treatment Hand signals Hawaii Hawksbill Hazard Description Hazardous Marine life Hazardous marinelife Head injuries Headaches Health practitioner Heart Attack Heart Health Heart Rate monitor Heart fitness Heart rates Heart rate Heart Heat stress Heliox Helium Hemodynamic Hepatitis C Hepatitus B Hiatal Hernia High Pressure vessels High pressure hoses High temperatures Hip strength Hip surgery Hippocampus History Hole in the heart Hot Humans Hydrate Hydration Hydrogen Hydroids Hydrostatic pressure Hygiene Hyperbaric Chamber Hyperbaric Oxygen Treatments Hyperbaric Oxygen Hyperbaric research Hyperbaric treatment Hyperbarics Hypertension Hypothermia Hypoxia I-52 found INclusivity IdentiFin Imaging Immersion Immine systems In Water Recompression Indemnity form Indian Ocean Indigo SCuba Indonesia Inert gas Infections Infra red Imaging Injections Inner ear Instinct Instruction Instructors Insurance Integrated Physiology International travel International Internship programs Internship Interval training Irritation Irukandji Syndrome Isotta housing Itchy Rash Jellyfish Jill Heinerth Joint pain Junior Open Water Diver KZN South Coast KZN Karen van den Oever Kate Jonker KateJonker Kenya Kidneys Kids scubadiver Komati Springs KwaZulu Natal Labour laws Lake Huron Laryngospasm Lauren Arthur Learning to dive Leatherback Legal Network Legal advice Legislation Lembeh Straights Lenses Leukemis Liability Risks Liability releases Liability Life expectancy Lifestyle Lightroom editing Lionfish Live aboard diving Liveaboard Liver Toxicity Liver diseas Liz Louw Loss of consciousness Lost at sea Low Visability Low blood pressure Low pressure deterioration Low volume masks Lumpsuckers Lung Irritation Lung function Lung injuries Lung squeeze Lung surgery Lung MOD MOzambique diving Macro photography Mafia Island Maintenance Malaria Mammalian Dive Response Mammalian effect Mandarin Fish Marfan syndrome Marine Biology Marine Mega fauna Marine Science Marine Scientists Marine conservation Marine parks Marine plants Marinelife Marinescience Marlin Mask clearing Masks Master scuba diver Maximum operating depth Medical Q Medical emergencies Medical questionaire Medical statement Medicalresearch Medicalstudents Medication Mehgan Heaney-Grier Membership benefits Menopause Menstruation Mermaid Danii Mesophotic Mexico Michael Aw Middle ear pressure Mike Bartick Military front press Misool Resort Raja Ampat Mixed Gas Mono Fins Mooring lines More pressure Motion sickness Motionsickness Mount Kilimanjaro Mozambique Muscle pain Mycobacterium marinum Narcosis National Geographic Nausea Nautilus Ndibranchs Neck pain Neoprene layers Neuro assessments Neurocognitive research Neurological assessments Neuromotor exercises Nichola Bird Nitrogen Narcosis Nitrogen build up Nitrox No Decompression Limits No-decompression limits No-decompression Non-nano zinc oxide Non-rebreather Mask Nondiving related illness Nonrebreather masks Normal Air North Sulawesi Nosebleeds Nudibranchs Nuno Gomes O2 providers O2 servicing O2treatments OOxygen maintenance Ocean Projects Ocean Research Ocean animals Ocean conservation Ocean migrations Ocean pollution Oceangate Octopus Oil contamination Olive Ridley Open Ocean Open water divers Optical focus Oral contraseptives Orbital implants Oronasal mask Osteonecrosis Out and about Out of air Outer ears Outreach Overhead Envirenments Oxygen Administration Oxygen Cylinder Oxygen Units Oxygen deficit Oxygen deicit Oxygen dificiency Oxygen ears Oxygen equipment Oxygen masks Oxygen providers Oxygen supplies Oxygen supply Oxygen systems Oxygen therapy Oxygen P J Prinsloo PADI Freedivers PFI PFO PJP Tech Paper Nautilus Paralysis Parentalsupervision Part 3 Partner Training Patent foramen ovale Pemba Island Peri-peri Divers Perspective Peter Lindholm Philippine Islands Philippines Phillipines Photographers Photography tips Photography Physical Fitness Physioball Physiology Physiotherapy Pills Pilot Whale Pistons Planning Plastic Plimsoll Interface Pneumonia Pneumothorax Poison Pollution Pool Diving Pool chemicals Pool maintenance Pool workout Pools Post-dive Potuguese man-of-war Pre-dive Predive check Pregnancy Pregnant divers Preparation Prepared diver Press Release Preventions ProDive Port Elizabeth Professional rights Provider course Psycological Pulmanologist Pulmonary Barotrauma Pulmonary Bleb Pulmonary Edema Pulmonary Hypertension Pulse Punture wounds Pure Apnea Purge RAID South Africa RCAP REEF Radio communications Range of motion Rashes Rebreather diving Rebreatherdive Rechargeable batteries. Recompression chamber Recompression treatment Recompression Recycle Reef Chcek Reef Conservation Reef Environmental Education Foundation Reef safe Reef surveyors Refractive correction Regal Sea Goddesses Regulator failure Regulators Regulator Remote areas Remote islands Renewable Report incidents Rescue Divers Rescue Procedure Rescue breathing Rescue breaths Rescue skills Rescue skill Rescue training Rescue Research Resume diving Return To Diving Return to diving Risk Assessments Risk assesments Risk assessment Risk elements Risk management Risks of Seizures Roatan Marine Park Roatan SABS 019 SMB SafariLive Safety Concerns Safety Gear Safety Stop Safety in Air Safety SaherSafe Barrier Salish Seas Salty Wanderer Sanitising Sara Andreotti Sardine Run Sargassum sea Saturation Diving Save our seas Schrimps Science Scoliosis Scombroid Poisoning Scorpion Fish Scuba Air Quality Scuba Guru Scuba Injury Scuba Instructor Scuba children Scuba divers Scuba dive Scuba education Scuba health Scubalearners Scubalife Sea Horses Sea Turtles Sea slugs Seagrass Sealife Seasickness Seaweeds Seaweed Sea Self Rescue Shallow dives Shark Protection Shark Research Shark conservation Shark diving Sharks Shipwrecks Shore entries Shoulder strength Sideplank Signs and Symptoms Silty bottoms Sit-ups Sixgill Sharks Skin Bends Skin outbreak Skin rash Smart phone photography Snells Window Snorkeling Snorkels Social Distancing Sodwana Bay Solomon Islands Sonnier bank South Africa SpareAir Sperm Whales Spinal Bend Spinal bends Spinal cord DCS Spinal dura Spinal pain Spinner dolphins Splits Sports medicine Squeezes Squid Run Stability exercise Standars Statin Mediction Stay Fit Steel Stents Step ups Stephen Frink Stepping up Stockton Rush Stonetown Strobe Lighting Stroke Submerge tech Submerged Sudafed Sulawesi Sun protection Sunscreen Supplemental oxygen Surface Marker Buoys Surface supplied Air Surfaced Surgeries Surgery Suspension training Swim Fitness Swimmers health SwimmingIn wateractivities Swimming Symbiosis Symbiosys TRavel safety Tabata protocol Talya Davidoff Tanzania Tattoes Tec Clark Technical Diving Technical divng The Bends The Titanic Wreck The Wild Coast The greatest Shoal The truth Thermal Notions Thermoregulation Thomas Peschak Thunder Bay National Marine Sanctuary Tides Tips and trick Tonga Tooth squeeze Transplants Travel destinations Travel smarter Travel tips Travel Tropical Coastal Management Tunnelling Turks and Caicos Turtles Tweezers Ultrsound Umkomaas Unconsciousness Underground work Underseaa world Underwaater Photos Underwater Photography Underwater Photograper Underwater Photograpgraphy Underwater Photographer Manirelife Underwater Research Underwater critters Underwater floral Gardens Underwater hockey Underwater imaging Underwater photographer Underwater photography Underwater pho Underwater sound Underwatercommunications Underwater University of Stellenbosch Urinary retention. Vacations Vaccines Vagus nerve Valsalva manoeuvers Valve stem seals Vape Vaping Vasopressors Vasvagal Syncope Venting Verna van Schak Virus infections Volatile fuels WWII wrecks War stories Washout treatments Wastewater Watchman device Water Resistance Water Weakness Weigang Xu Weights West Papua Western Cape Diving Wet Lenses Wet diving bell Wetsuit fitting Wetsuites Wetsuits White balance Whitetpped Sharks Wide Angle Photos Wide angles Wildlife park Wildlife Winter Wits Underwater Club Wolf Eels Woman and diving Woman in diving Womans health Woman Women In Diving SA Women and Diving Women in diving Womens Month Womens health Work of Breathing Workout World Deeepst Dive Record World Records Wound dressings Wreck History Wreck divers Wreck dive Wreck diving Wreck exploration Wreckdiving Wrecks Yoga Youth diver Zandile Ndholvu Zanzibar Zoology Zooplankton abrasion absolute pressure acoustic neuroma excision adverse seas air-cushioned alert diver altitude alveolar walls anemia antibiotics anticoagulants antiseptics bandages barodontalgia bent-over barbell rows bioassays biodiversity bloodcells body art breathing air calories burn carbon dioxide toxicity cardiovascular career developments cerebrospinal fluid cervical spine checklist chemo port children child chronic obstructive pulmonary disease clearances closed circuit scuba corrective lenses currents cuts cylinder filling dead lift decompression algorithms decongestants decongestion dehydration dive injuries dive medicing dive ready child dive reflex dive tribe divecomputers diver in distress diver rescue diver training dive diving attraction doctors domestic travel dri-suits drowning dry mucous membranes dry suits dry e-cigarettes ear spaces elearning electrolyte imbalance electroytes emergency action plans emergency assessment emergency training environmentally friendly equalising equalizing exposure injuries eyes fEMAL DIVERS fire rescue fitness Balance fitnes flexible tubing frediving freedivers gas bubble gas poisoning gastric acid gene expression health heartburn histidine hospital humidity immersion and bubble formation immersion pulmonary edema (IPE informal education isopropyl alcohol jaundice join DAN knee laparoscopic surgery longevity lower stress malaise marielife marine pathogens medical issues medical procedures medical risk assesment medications mental challenge mental preparedness micro-organisims micro minor illness mucous membranes multilineage dysplasia myelodysplasia nasal steroids nasal near drowning nematocysts neurological newdivers nitrogen bubbles off-gassed operating theatre operations orthopeadic otitis media outgas pain perforation phillippines phrenic nerve physical challenges pinched nerves plasters pneumoperitoneum polyester-TPU polyether-TPU post dive posture prescription mask preserve prevention proper equalization psychoactive pulmonary barotrauma. pulmonary injury. pulmunary barotrauma radiation rebreather mask rebreathers retinal detachment risk areas safety stops saturation scissors scuba equipment scuba sea goddesses single use sinus infections situationalawarenes smoking snorkeling. spearfishing sterilising stings strength sub-aquatic sunscreen lotion swimmers ears tattoo care tecnical diver thermal protection tissue damage toxicity training trimix unified standards upwelling vision impaired vomiting warmers water quality zinc oxide