Sight Search

Answering the Call

The Marine photography of Thomas Peschak

A prototype electromagnetic shark-deterring surfboard gets a test run at South Africa’s Aliwal Shoal Marine Protected Area. The device may help manage future encounters between surfers and sharks. Photo by Thomas Peschak
CREDITS | By Stephen Frink; captions by Thomas Peschak

In Wild Seas, his new book published by National Geographic, Thomas Peschak ponders his career path: “My life as a National Geographic photographer has been socially isolating, emotionally exhausting and physically demanding — but it is the most rewarding pursuit I can imagine. I have cried from loneliness, felt nauseous with fear and cursed in frustration. But every time I thought I was at my limit, I discovered untapped reservoirs of strength, creativity and passion. This is not a job; it’s a calling.”

Earlier in life, Peschak thought his calling was to be a marine biologist. That had been his dream since he was 10 years old, and the only way National Geographic factored in was perhaps to cite his work in one of their articles. His heroes were the marine scientists conducting the research documented by the text, not the photographers making the images that graced the pages.
At Little Farmer’s Cay in the Bahamas, green sea turtles associate the sound of fishers cracking conch shells with a free meal. The conch meat is exported to the U.S. and beyond, while the turtles eagerly eat what is discarded. The fishers’ parents and grandparents regularly caught and ate sea turtles, but today’s generation has a different relationship with these marine reptiles. Tourism is becoming more critical to the survival of outer island communities, and the turtles play an essential part in community tourism projects.
In 1999, when Peschak was a 24-year-old immersed in Ph.D. research on abalone, he had an epiphany. At his favorite bay near Africa’s southernmost tip, he had marked hundreds of individual abalone by gluing numbers to the backs of their shells. He extensively documented their movement and behavior within their kelp-forest home. Months of observation had revealed each one’s unique characteristics. Over a single night, however, poachers took almost all of them, leaving the shells in a lifeless heap on the seafloor. Their flesh, worth $200 a pound, was likely bound for Asian seafood markets. This moment of despair precipitated his career change.

“Abalone Armageddon” is Peschak’s term for a situation so dire that the millions of abalone poached in South Africa each year made extinction in the wild a real possibility. Despite the dangers of illegal harvesting, his statistics and science did not seem to inspire change, but the photographs he took to illustrate his reports began to resonate. Community newspapers and regional magazine began to publish his photos. The images were unrefined compared to his later work, but they reflected his passion as he told a story he knew intimately. His photos made an impact, so he left science to pursue a career as a conservation photographer.
Globally, shark populations have declined dramatically over the past century; some regional studies report declines of more than 90 percent for some species. Oceans without sharks would be like Yellowstone without bears or the Serengeti without lions. This photo shows a single boat’s catch of silky sharks laid out in an orderly grid. The angular puzzle of fins pointed to the sky resembles crosses in a military cemetery.
He loaded his Land Rover and explored 4,000 miles of southern Africa’s coastline with the idea of photographing the marine wilderness. While most photographers there focused on terrestrial safari images, he concentrated on the underwater world. Before South Africa was a mainstream destination for great white sharks and its famed sardine run, Peschak was there with his camera, getting noticed and publishing articles and photos in natural history, dive and travel magazines.

For his real underwater photography breakthrough, he credits not the abalone coverage or the great white sharks he captured feasting on a whale carcass but rather freediving with manta rays in the Maldives in 2008. He describes it as follows:

“I am in a giant vortex of hundreds of feeding manta rays. With 9-foot wingspans, these animals create their own current, delivering a bounty of zooplankton toward their gaping mouths. I am hypnotized by their beauty and gobsmacked by the scale. As I prepare to make another photograph, intense spasms rattle my diaphragm. I’ve stayed down too long; the precious oxygen I hastily inhaled at the surface two minutes before is almost exhausted. My body gives a final warning to return to the surface or risk losing consciousness. As the level of carbon dioxide in my blood increases, my lungs burn as if lined with stinging nettles. But before I can take a breath, I have to ascend 50 feet to the surface through a shifting, Tetris-like puzzle of mantas. Mantas are benign, but during a feeding frenzy they are oblivious to their surroundings. As I ascend, the rays crash into each other like 2,000-pound bumper cars. Eventually, I navigate through the gauntlet of wings, break the surface, and gasp in euphoric relief.”  

As a dive safety publication, Alert Diver always considers the importance of being aware of the potential dangers of freediving and the fatal implications of shallow-water blackout. Peschak obviously survived, and in 2008 some of those photos attracted the attention of Kathy Moran, National Geographic’s senior photo editor. The manta ray feeding orgy at Hanifaru appeared in National Geographic just a year later, and now Peschak has contributed 15 stories over the past 13 years.
I was so tired and cold that sitting in a stream of penguin poo to steal a few minutes of rest was, at the time, a perfectly acceptable option. Despite the foul stench, I was absorbed in reviewing my images. When I looked up 10 minutes later, I was surrounded by a gang of fluffy king penguin chicks that had waddled more than 100 feet to investigate. They were some of the most curious animals I have ever encountered.
Stephen Frink: How do your National Geographic assignments work now? Do they find a topic of interest to their readership and send you off?

Thomas Peschak: Not anymore. The days of sitting around waiting for an assignment are long gone. Instead, I dedicate extensive time and research to finding stories. I might be contemplating 10 ideas, but when one gels, I dive into the preparation. The idea becomes an obsession, and I think of little else. I read hundreds of scientific papers, dozens of books and speak to as many experts as I can find. If the magazine accepts my story pitch, the work may absorb the next two years of my life, so it is not a casual proposition.

The photography, the actual click of the shutter release, is the easiest part. I often have a full year of buildup, planning and imagining what the individual photographs and the visual story arc might look like. No one would torture themselves during the preshoot research phase if they weren’t deeply committed, but I love the detective work. Almost every story I’ve ever done has had a conservation issue at its core, which helps keep me motivated.
A photograph from the 1890s shows a once-massive African penguin colony on Namibia’s Halifax Island in stark contrast to the scene I photographed in 2017. The demand for their guano (bird excrement used for fertilizer) and eggs were principal drivers of the dramatic population decline from more than 100,000 to about 2,000 today. Ongoing overfishing of sardines, the penguins’ preferred prey, and climate change prevent these charismatic seabirds from recovering to historical numbers.
How do you identify a story that needs to be visual and can have an impact on conservation?

I like to go to unfamiliar places and tell stories that others have not told. That’s harder these days because not many places are totally off the radar. Even with a familiar place, I think about approaching a story differently and pioneering a viewpoint. I look at photos every day for a week or two and attempt to find every photograph ever made on the topic. My single-minded objective is to discover how I might do it differently and better.

When I was recently in the Galápagos, I wanted to get better photos than anyone had yet taken, but I felt everything had been seen before. I went there expecting to see certain animals and was not disappointed by the photo opportunities. How would you cover the Galápagos, for example, with that goal in mind?

I once spent a week at Darwin Island photographing nothing but silky sharks rubbing themselves against whale sharks to remove parasites. I shot some hammerhead frames as well, but I knew that I would need to devote most of my time to the whale sharks and that it would be fine if I came home without an iconic hammerhead photograph. If I make just one unique image, that’s an outstanding week on location. For the Galápagos National Geographic article, however, I lived in the islands for six months shooting both terrestrial and marine images. I came home with 15 to 20 iconic images and am pleased with that body of work. I sleep well at night knowing that I could not have worked any harder or prepared more rigorously.
Macaroni penguins climb toward the summit of a sea cliff. This unique penguin nesting and molting site is along the western edge of Marion Island. Despite being nearly 1,200 miles southeast of Cape Town, Marion is South African territory and has an important scientific research station.
Very few clients will support that kind of immersion into a destination these days.

I’m among the few fortunate souls — along with David Doubilet, Brian Skerry and Paul Nicklen — who  get to regularly share our ocean imagery with more than 100 million people. Fifteen stories for National Geographic is a pretty good run for me so far, and I know how immensely fortunate I am. It is not always easy though. I’m 46 now, which may not seem old, but spending 90 percent of your life either researching or shooting on location for an assignment is all-consuming. Nothing comes for free. Telling these stories takes nothing less than a total personal investment. I regularly mentor emerging young photographers; while many of them are extraordinary image makers, few are willing to sacrifice so much to live the life.
A cape gannet flies low over Malgas Island, trying to land as close to its partner and nest as possible. If the bird lands too far away, it will have to run through the crowded colony, enduring a gauntlet of stabbing beaks. These gannets can get intense and vicious when dealing with interlopers.
Tell me a little about your early years. Yours is a unique path, so how did you get here?

I was born in Hamburg, Germany, to adventurous parents who were passionate boaters. I began snorkeling at age 10, and I still freedive for most of my photography. We dived together and got scuba certified as a family.

I was a nerdy kid interested in all things underwater. Jacques Cousteau books and fish ID guides were my obsession, and marine biology became my overriding passion by age 12. At 14 I had my first camera, a Minolta Weathermatic that used 110 cartridge film, but photography hadn’t hooked me yet. Instead I wanted to be a scientist looking at sleeping sharks or diving with Weddell seals in the Antarctic. I was a dive instructor by age 18.
Gray whale mothers in Baja California’s San Ignacio Lagoon once weaponized their powerful tail flukes to smash whaling boats and protect their calves. The scene now could not be more different, and gray whales have made a remarkable comeback. In just a single century, our relationship with them went from being dominated by fear and violence to engaging in mutual curiosity. The whales determine their interactions with boats full of whale-watching enthusiasts and will often surface right next to visitors to have their heads scratched. These interspecific interactions began to occur in the 1970s, and mothers seem to be passing on this new aspect of whale culture to their calves.
After my experience with abalone photography in graduate school, I had one foot firmly in science and one in visual arts. I finally decided to rip off the bandage. Spendng two years as a photo nomad living out of my Land Rover and photographing throughout southern Africa probably set the hook. I had some astonishing adventures. It was different then on the sardine run — for example, you wouldn’t see eight boats on a single baitball. Doug Perrine and I were two of the first photographers to comprehensively document baitball behavior, but he was already underwater photography royalty at that time.

After working six weeks a year for seven years to get the ultimate baitball shots, my best images were from just two baitballs. The sardine run in southern Africa happens in mid-winter when the seas can be rough, and you launch from exposed beaches into visibility affected by river runoff. Many days I’ve spent eight hours at sea and came home with nothing good. But one day in 2007, a Bryde’s whale charged from below, engulfed the entire sardine baitball, breached and crashed back into the water just 3 feet from me. Ninety thousand pounds of whale was an arm’s length away, and I was there to get the picture! My friends on the nearby boat thought the whale had landed on my head, but luckily for me the wave from the breach had pushed me out of the way. Capturing moments like that is what I live for and makes spending eight hours at sea each day with just one photo to show for it worthwhile.

For many stories I spend up to 10 hours a day in the water freediving and observing interesting behaviors from above. When the time is right, I move in to make the photograph. Interacting that way with turtles, seals, whales or dolphins seems more relaxed without using scuba, which can be noisy and intrusive for marine wildlife. Howard and Michele Hall captured their images through long days and patience. While some of their images are now 30 years old, they remain the benchmark for natural history underwater photography. Spending lots of time in the sea and having a deep understanding of animal behavior are essential if you want to make similarly iconic and memorable photographs.

Tell me about your new book, Wild Seas.
Writing and imaging for books is now my true passion. I dive deep into a single subject for an assignment and often get way more images than even a 30-page National Geographic feature needs, so books are a great way for me to tell a more comprehensive story. I’ve created seven books to date, and Wild Seas, published by National Geographic, is the latest. It is a mid-career retrospective with nearly 20 years distilled into a 270-page volume. In addition to my 200 favorite photographs, it tells the story of my transformation from marine biologist to National Geographic photographer. I wanted to reveal the rarely seen trials and tribulations behind the images and vividly recount my adventures exploring some of the wildest ocean locales on our planet.
Great White Shark, South African Coast

When I began work on a book about great white sharks almost 20 years ago, I had no idea it would yield my most well-known image. I worked with scientists at the White Shark Trust for more than 10 months to create novel images of great whites off South Africa. When they struggled to track sharks in the shallows, I suggested using a kayak as a less-obtrusive research platform.

The story of this photograph begins with a perfectly calm sea. I had harnessed myself to the research boat’s tower, precariously leaning over the ocean, making images of the scientists tracking sharks, when a very bold shark dived to the seabed to inspect the kayak from below.

I trained my camera on the nebulous shadow as it slowly transformed into the sleek silhouette of a large great white. When the dorsal fin emerged, I thought I had the shot but hesitated a fraction of a second. At that moment, the researcher in the kayak turned to look behind him, and I hit the shutter. Instead of the scientist tracking the shark, the shark was now tracking the scientist.

I knew the image would be iconic, but I was not prepared for the public response. The photo attracted more than 100,000 visitors to my website in the first 24 hours after I published it. In a world without social media, that was considered viral. But then things took an unexpected turn, as many suspected the photo was a digital fake, and some websites still debate its authenticity. The image is real and was one of the last I took using slide film before transitioning to digital. All versions of this photo come from a high-resolution scan of the slide with no postproduction adjustments.

Categories

 2023
immersion and bubble formation 232bar 24Hours AGE AIDA Accident management Accidents Acid reflux Acute ailments Adam Sokolski Advanced courses Rescue diver Aerobic exercise After anaesthesia Aged divers Air Ambulance Air Quality Air consumption Air exchange centre Air hose failure Air supply Airway control Air Alert Diver December 2022 Alert Diver Magazine Alert Diver March 2023 Algorithms Alice Cattaneo Alice Modolo Alopecia Alternate Airsources use Alternater Air Source Alternative gas mix Altitude changes Altitude diving Altitude sickness Aluminium Oxide Ama divers Amino acids Amos Nachoum Anaerobic Metabolism Anilao Animal intelligence Animal life Annual renewal Antarctica Anxiety Apea Apex predators Apnea addicts Apnea Apnoea Aqua corps Aquatic creatures Aquatic life Aquatics and Scuba Diving Archaeology Argonaut octopus Argonauts Argon Arrythmia Arterial Gas Embolisms Arterial gas embolism Arthroscopic surgery Aspirin Audible signals Aurel hygiene Australian Flat backed Australia Aviation o2 BCD BHP BLS BWARF Baacterial infections Back adjustment Back pain Back treatment Backextensors Backmount CCR Badages Bag valve mask Bags Bahamas Bail out cylinder Balancing Bandaids Barbell back squat Barometric pressure Barotrauma Basic Life Support Basslets Batteries Beach entry Beached coral Becky Kaga Schott Becky Kagan Schott Beluga whales Bench press Bends Benign prostate hyperplasia Benzophenones Beth Neale Beyond Standards Big Sur Bilikiki Tours Biophysics Black Water Photography Black Blood flow Blood pressure Blood thinners Blue Desert Blue Wilderness Blue economy Blue heron Bridge Bluff Blurred vision Boat diving Boat etiquette Boat safety Boats Bobbit worm Boesmans gat Boesmansgat Bonaire Bone fractures Bouyancy compensators Bouyancy control device Bouyancy controls Boyle's Law Boyle\'s Law Bradycardia Brain Brandon Cole Breast Cancer Breath Hold Diving Breath hold diver Breath holding Breath hold Breath-hold Breathing Gas Breathing gas contamination Breathing oxygen Breathing Breathold diving Bright Bank Broken bones Bruising Bubble detection Bubbleformation Buddy Exercise Buddy checks Buoyancy Burn wounds Burnshield Burns Business B CCR CE markings CGASA CMAS CNS CO2 COVID-19 Updates COVID-19 COVID CPR CSI Cabin pressure Caissons diseas California Camera equipment Camera settings Cameras Cancer Remission Cancer treatments Cancer Cannabis and diving Cannabis Cape Diver Research Cape Nudibranchs Cape Town Dive Festival Cape Town Dive Sites Cape Town CapeTown Carbon Monoxide Carbon dioxide Cardiac Health Cardiac research Cardiaccompromise Cardio health Cardiological Cardiomyopathy Caribbean Carmel Bay Carribean Conservation Catalina Island Cave Cave diving Cave divers Cave diving Cave exploration Caves Cave Cenotes Ceotes Challenging Environments Chamber Locations Chamber Safety Chamber maintenance Chamber medical staff Chamber science Chamber treatment Chamber Charging batteries Charles' Law Charles\' Law Charles\\\' Law Charles\\\\\\\' Law Charles\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\' Law Charlie Warland Chemotherapy Chest compressions Children diving Chiropractic Chlorophll Chokka Run Christina Mittermeier Chuck Davis Chuuk lagoon Citizen Conservation Citizen sciences Citizen science Clean Air Cleaning products Cleeve Robertson Climate change Closed Circuit Rebreathers Closed Circuit Rebreather Clothing Cmmunity partnership Coastal diving Coastalexcursion Cold Water Cold care Cold sores ColdWater Cold Commercial Fishing Commercial diving Commercial operations Commercial schools Common consideration Common understanding Communication Compact Cameras Composition Compressed Air Compressed gas Compressor operators Compressors Concussion Congestive heart Faiture Consercation Conservation Photographer Conservation photography Conservation Contact lenses Contaminants Contaminated air Coping with cold Coral Bleaching event Coral Conservation Coral Reefs Coral Restoration Coral bleaching Coral preservation CoralGroupers Corals Core strength Corona virus Coro Coservation Costamed Chamber Courtactions Cozumel Cradiac valvular Crime scene Cristina Mittermeier Crohns disease Crowns Crystal build up Crystallizing hoses Cubs Cutaneous decompression Cutting tools Cylinder Ruptures Cylinder capacity Cylinder handwheel Cylinder safety Cylinder valves Cylinder weight Cylinders DAN Courses DAN Europe DAN Profile DAN Researchers DAN hotline service DAN insure DAN medics DAN members DAN report DANTraining DCI DCS Decompressions sickness DCS theories DCS DEMP DM training DNA DPV DReams DSMB Daan verhoeven Dahab Dalton's Law Dalton\'s Law Dalton\\\'s Law Dalton\\\\\\\'s Law Dalton\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\'s Law Danel Wenzel Dangerous Marinelife Dauin island Dave McCowan David Doubilet Dean's Blue Hole Dean\'s Blue Hole Deco dives Decompression Illness Decompression Sickness Decompression Stress Decompression benenfits Decompression chamber Decompression illsnes Decompression ilness Decompression limits Decompression treatment Decompression Decomression sickness Decorator crabs Deep Freediving Deep diving Deep water exploration Deepest SCUBA Dive Delayed Offgassing Dennis Guichard Dental Depth limits Dever Health Diadema Response Team Diagnosis Diaphragms Diets Diopter Dirty water Discomfort Diseases Disinfection Disorientation Distraction Dive Accident Dive Action Dive Buddy Dive Chamber Dive Chmber Dive Computer Dive Destinations Dive Destination Dive Fitness # fit to dive @Dive health Dive H Dive Industry Dive Instruction Dive Instructor Dive Lights Dive Masters Dive Medical Form Dive Medical Dive Practices Dive Professionals Dive Pros Dive Rescue Dive Research Dive Safari Dive Safety Tips Dive South Africa Dive Taiwan Dive Training Dive Travel Wakatobi Dive Travel Dive accidents Dive bell Dive buddies Dive caves Dive centre rules Dive communications Dive computers Dive courses Dive cover Dive cylinder Aluminium Dive equipment Dive excursions Dive exercise Dive exeriences Dive experience Dive fitness Dive gear Dive heallth Dive health Dive in Africa Dive insurance Dive leaders Dive masks Dive medical insurance Dive medicals Dive medicines Dive medicine Dive operators Dive opportunities Dive planning Dive procedures Dive safety 101 Dive safety briefing Dive safety Dive safe Dive skills Dive staff Dive teams Dive travels DiveLIVE DiveTravel Diveleader training Diveleaders Divelights Diver Ethisc Diver Food Diver Health Diver Profile Diver Travel Diver education Diver infliencers Diver on surface Diver recall Diverover 50 Divers Alert Diversafety Divers Divesites Diving Divas Diving Equipment Diving Family Diving Fatalities Diving Feet Diving Helmets Diving Kids Diving Programs Diving Trauma Diving career Diving emergencies Diving emergency management Diving etiquette Diving fit Diving guidelines Diving history Diving injuries Diving science Diving suspended Diving Dizziness Dizzyness Dolphins Domestic Donating Blood Donation Doug Perrine Dowels Dr Rob Schneider Drift diving Drysuit diving Drysuit valves Drysuits Durban Dynamic environment Dyperbaric medicines EAPs EAP EKG EMS EN standards Ear barotrauma Ear pressure Ear wax Ears injuries Eat fish Eco friendly Ecowise Education Electronic Embolisms Emergency Action Plan Emergency Planning Emergency action planning Emergency decompression Emergency plans Emergency treatments Emergency underwater Oxygen Recompression Emergency Endurance Entry Envenomations Enviromental Protection Environmental factors Environmental impact Environmental managment Environmental stewardship Equalisation Equalization Equipment care Equipment failure Equipment inspection Equipment significance Evacuations Evacuation Evaluations Even Breath Evironmetaly friendly Exercise Exercising Exhaustion Exploration dives Exposure Protection Extended divetime Extinction Extinguisher Extreme treatments Eye injuries Eye protection FAQ Face computer Factor V Leiden Failures FalseBay Diving Fatigue Faulty equipment Feet Femal diver Female divers Fenivir Fetus development Field practice Filling stations Fillings Fin Foot Fins Fire Coral Fire Safety Fire extinguisher Firefighting Fires First Aid Equipment First Aid Kit First Aid Trainig First Aid Training First Aid kits First Aid Fish Identification Fish Life Fishing Fish Fit to dive Fitness Levels Fitness Training Fitness evaluation Fitness to dive Fitnesstrainng Fitness Flying Focus lights Food Footissues Foundations Fractures Francesca Diaco Francois Burman Fred Buyle Fredive Free Student cover Free diving Free flow Freedive Competition Rules Freedive Competiton Freedive INstructor Freedive Safety Freedive Training Freedive computer Freedive modes Freedive rescue procedures Freediver Staff Instructor Freediver Freedive Freediving Instructors Freediving performance Freediving Fur rade Galapagos Gar Waterman Gardens of The Queen Gas Density Gas Planning Gas consumption Gas emboli Gas laws Gas management Gas mixes GasPerformance Gasblends Gases Gass bubbles Gastoeusophagus Gastric bypass Gastroenterologist Gas Gear Servicing Germs Geyer Bank Giant Kelp Forest Giant Kelp Giant stride Girls that Scba Gobies Golden fish Gordon Hiles Great White Sharks Green sea turtle Green turles Greenlings Guinness World Record Gutt irritations HBOT HBO HCV HELP HIRA HMLI HMS Britanica Haemorhoid treatment Hand signals Harry Chammas Havanna Hawaii Hawksbill Hazard Description Hazardous Marine life Hazardous marinelife Head injuries Headaches Health practitioner Healthy Food Heart Attack Heart Health Heart Rate monitor Heart fitness Heart rates Heart rate Heart Heat loss Heat stress Helen Walne Heliox Helium Gas Helium Hematoma Hemodynamic Hepatitis C Hepatitus B Hiatal Hernia High Pressure vessels High pressure hoses High temperatures Hip strength Hip surgery Hippocampus History Hole in the heart Hood Hot Human diver Humans Hydrate Hydration Hydrogen Hydroids Hydrostatic pressure Hygiene Hyperbaric Chamber Hyperbaric Oxygen Treatments Hyperbaric Oxygen Hyperbaric research Hyperbaric treatment Hyperbarics Hypertension Hypothermia Hypoxia I-52 found INclusivity IdentiFin Imaging Immersion Immine systems In Water Recompression Increased pressure Indemnity form Indian Ocean Indigo SCuba Indonesia Inert gas Infections Infra red Imaging Inhaca Ocean Alliance Injections Inner ear Instinct Instruction Instructors Insulation Insurance policy Insurance Integrated Physiology International travel International Internship programs Internship Interval training Investigations Irritation Irukandji Syndrome Isotta housing Italy Itchy Rash Its OK Jellyfish Jennifer Hayes Jill Heinerth Joanna Wyrebek John Vowles Joint pain Joshua Journal for Technical Diving Junior Open Water Diver KZN South Coast KZN Karen van den Oever Kate Jonker KateJonker Kelp Forest Kelp forests Kenya Kidneys Kids scubadiver Komati Springs KwaZulu Natal Kwazulu-Natal LED lights LED Labour laws Lake Huron Lara Lambiase Laryngospasm Lauren Arthur Leanne Walmsley Learning to dive Leatherbacks Leatherback Legal Network Legal advice Legislation Lembeh Straights Lenses Leslie Lwaney Leukemis Liability Insurance Liability Risks Liability releases Liability Life expectancy Lifestyle Lighting equipment Lighting Lightroom editing Lights Lionfish Live aboard diving Liveaboard Liver Toxicity Liver diseas Liz Louw Loss of consciousness Lost at sea Lost divers Low Visability Low blood platelets Low blood pressure Low pressure deterioration Low volume masks Lumpsuckers Lung Irritation Lung flexibility Lung function Lung injuries Lung over expansion Lung squeeze Lung surgery Lung MOD MOzambique diving MPA Macro photography Mafia Island Maintenance Malaria Mammalian Dive Response Mammalian effect Manatees Mandarin Fish Marfan syndrome Marine Biologist Marine Biology Marine Mega fauna Marine Science Marine Scientists Marine conservation Marine parks Marine plants Marinelife Marinescience Markus Dirschi Marlin Marne protecte areas Mask clearing Masks Mask Master scuba diver Matty Smith Maximum operating depth Medical FAQ Medical Q Medical emergencies Medical forms Medical oxygen Medical questionaire Medical statement Medical team Medicalquestionaires Medicalresearch Medicalstudents Medication Mehgan Heaney-Grier Membership benefits Menopause Menstruation Mental health Mermaid Danii Mesophotic Metotrexate Mexico Michael Aw Micro Photography Microbubbles Middle ear pressure Mike Bartick Military front press Military Misool Resort Raja Ampat Mixed Gas Mono Fins Mooring lines More pressure Motion sickness Motionsickness Mount Kilimanjaro Mozambique Muck Diving Muscle pain Mycobacterium marinum NDL limits NSRI Narcosis National Geographic Nature Nausea Nauticam Ambassadors Nauticam Ambassador Nautilus Navigation Ndibranchs Neck pain Neoprene layers Neuro assessments Neurocognitive research Neurological assessments Neuromotor exercises New Caledonia Nichola Bird Nicorette Nicotine Nitrogen Narcosis Nitrogen build up Nitrox No Decompression Limits No-decompression limits No-decompression Non-nano zinc oxide Non-rebreather Mask Non-smoking Nondiving related illness Nonrebreather masks Normal Air North Sulawesi Northern Taiwan Nosebleeds Nudibranchs Nuno Gomes Nutrition O2 enriched O2 oxygen provider. O2 providers O2 servicing O2 treatments O2treatments OOxygen maintenance Ocean Alliance Ocean Projects Ocean Research Ocean animals Ocean clean up Ocean community Ocean conservation Ocean life Ocean mammals Ocean migrations Ocean pollution Oceangate Ocean Octopus Oil contamination Olive Ridley Open Ocean Open water divers Operatorethics Optical focus Oral contraseptives Orbital implants Oronasal mask Osteonecrosis Otters Out and about Out of air Outer ears Outreach Overhead Envirenments Oxygen Administration Oxygen Cylinder Oxygen Toxicity Oxygen Units Oxygen deficit Oxygen deicit Oxygen dificiency Oxygen ears Oxygen equipment Oxygen explosions Oxygen kit Oxygen masks Oxygen providers Oxygen safety Oxygen supplies Oxygen supply Oxygen systems Oxygen therapy Oxygen treatment Oxygen P J Prinsloo PADI Freedivers PFI PFOs PFO PJP Tech PTSD Paper Nautilus Paralysis Parentalsupervision Part 3 Partner Training Patent foramen ovale PatentForamen Ovale Pemba Island Peri-peri Divers Personal Perspective Petar Denoble Peter Lindholm Philippine Islands Philippines Phillipines Photographers Photographer Photography tips Photography Physical Fitness Physioball Physiology Physiotherapy Pills Pilot Whale Pistons Planning Plastic pollution Plastic Plimsoll Interface Pneumonia Pneumothorax Poison Pole fishing Polka Dot Bat fish Pollution Pool Diving Pool chemicals Pool maintenance Pool workout Pools Post traumatic Post-dive Potuguese man-of-war Pre-dive fitness Pre-dive Predive check Pregnancy Pregnant divers Preparation Prepared diver Press Release Preventions ProDive Port Elizabeth Product scuba nudi Professional rights Protection Provider course Psycological Pulmanologist Pulmonary Barotrauma Pulmonary Bleb Pulmonary Edema Pulmonary Hypertension Pulse Punture wounds Pure Air Pure Apnea Purge Quit Smoking Q RAID South Africa RCAP REEF RMV ROS Radio communications Range of motion Rashes Reactive oxygen species Rebreather diving Rebreatherdive Recces Rechargeable batteries. Rechargeable Recompression chamber Recompression treatment Recompression Recreational dives Recycle Red SEA Reef Chcek Reef Conservation Reef Environmental Education Foundation Reef protection Reef safe Reef surveyors Refractive correction Regal Sea Goddesses Regulator failure Regulators Regulator Remote areas Remote dive locations Remote islands Renewable Rental gear Report incidents Rescue Divers Rescue Procedure Rescue breathing Rescue breaths Rescue diver Rescue skills Rescue skill Rescue training Rescue Researcher profile Research Respitory Minute Volume Resume diving Return To Diving Return to diving Reuseable items Rhinopias Risk Assessments Risk assesments Risk assessment Risk elements Risk management Risk mitigation Risks of Seizures River diving Riviera Maya Roatan Marine Park Roatan Ronblom Rubber ducks SABS 019 SAC SMB SRC SafariLive Safe diving practices Safety Concerns Safety Gear Safety Stop Safety in Air Safety SaherSafe Barrier Salisbury Island Salish Seas Salty Wanderer Sanitising Sanne Volja Sara Andreotti Sara Banderby Sara Campbell Sardine Run Sargassum sea Saturation Diving Saturation diver Save our seas Schrimps Science of diving Science Scoliosis Scombroid Poisoning Scorpion Fish Scuba Air Quality Scuba Guru Scuba Injury Scuba Instructor Scuba children Scuba divers Scuba dive Scuba diving Scuba education Scuba gear Scuba health Scubalearners Scubalife Sea Horses Sea Turtles Sea rescue Sea slugs Seagrass Sealcolonies Sealife Seals Seasickness Seaweeds Seaweed Sea Self Rescue Send Nudi Shallow Water Blackout Shallow dives Shark Protection Shark Research Shark conservation Shark diving Sharks Shipwrecks Shit Happens Shore entries Shoulder strength Sidemount Sideplank Signalling devices Signs and Symptoms Silty bottoms Sit-ups Sixgill Sharks Skills in action Skin Bends Skin outbreak Skin rash Smart phone photography Snells Window Snorkeling Snorkels Social Distancing Sodwana Bay Solomon Islands Sonnier bank South Africa Southern Sea Otters SpareAir Special Operations Special forces units Sperm Whales Spinal Bend Spinal bends Spinal cord DCS Spinal dura Spinal pain Spinner dolphins Spleen Splits Sports medicine Squeezes Squid Run Stability exercise Stage cylinder Standars Statin Mediction Stay Fit Stay Warm Steel Stefan Randig Stents Step ups Stephen Frink Stepping up Stobes Stockton Rush Stonetown Stretch band exercise Stretch bands Stretching Strobe Lighting Strobes Stroke Submerge tech Submerged Sudafed Sulawesi Sun protection Sun screen Sunscreen Supplemental oxygen Surface Air Consumption Surface Consumption Rate Surface Marker Buoys Surface supplied Air Surfaced Surfers Surgeries Surgery Survivor Suspension training Swim Fitness Swimmers health SwimmingIn wateractivities Swimming Sylvia Earl Symbiosis Symbiosys TRavel safety Tabata protocol Talya Davidoff Tank valve Tanzania Tara Panton Tattoes Tchnical diving Team Awareness Tec Clark Tec divers Tec diving Tech diving Technical Diving Technical diver Technical divng Temperature Homeostatis The Bends The Cavettes The Produce The Titanic Wreck The Wild Coast The greatest Shoal The silent world The truth Thermal Notions Thermoregulation Thomas Peschak Thresher shark Thunder Bay National Marine Sanctuary Tides Tips and trick Tonga Tooth squeeze Transplants Trashbag Trauma Travel Safe Travel destinations Travel smarter Travel tips Travel Tropical Coastal Management Tulamben Tullum Tulum. Tuna Tunnelling Turks and Caicos Turtles Tweezers Ultrsound Umkomaas Unconscious diver Unconsciousness Underground waterways Underground work Underseaa world Underwaater Photos Underwater Photography Underwater Photograper Underwater Photograpgraphy Underwater Photographer Manirelife Underwater Photographers Underwater Research Underwater camera Underwater critters Underwater floral Gardens Underwater hockey Underwater imaging Underwater lights Underwater models Underwater photographer Underwater photography Underwater photos Underwater pho Underwater sound Underwatercommunications Underwater Underwtaer photography University of Stellenbosch Unresponsive Urchins Urinary retention. VGE Vacations Vaccines Vagus nerve Valsalva manoeuvers Valve stem seals Vape Vaping Vasopressors Vasvagal Syncope Venous gas emboli Ventilate Venting Verna van Schak Veterinarian Videography Vincenzo Ferri. Virus infections Volatile fuels WWII wrecks War stories Washout treatments Wastewater Watchman device Water Resistance Water Weakness Weigang Xu Weightloss Weights West Papua Western Cape Diving Wet Lenses Wet diving bell Wetsuit fitting Wetsuites Wetsuits Wetsuit White balance Whitetpped Sharks Wide Angle Photos Wide angles Wildlife park Wildlife Winter Wits Underwater Club Wolf Eels Woman and diving Woman in diving Woman's Health Womans health Woman Women In Diving SA Women and Diving Women in Freediving Women in diving Womens Month Womens health Work of Breathing Workout World Deeepst Dive Record World Records Wound dressings Wreck History Wreck divers Wreck dive Wreck diving Wreck exploration Wreckdiving Wrecks Wrist technology Yachts Yoga Youth diver Zandile Ndholvu Zanzibar Zoology Zooplankton \ Blennies abrasion absolute pressure acoustic neuroma excision adverse seas air-cushioned alert diver altitude alveolar walls anemia antibiotics anticoagulants antiseptics bandages barodontalgia bent-over barbell rows bioassays biodiversity bloodcells blue carbon body art breathing air calories burn canal blockage cannabis oil carbon dioxide toxicity cardiovascular career developments cerebrospinal fluid cervical spine checklist chemo port children child chronic obstructive pulmonary disease clearances closed circuit scuba compressed gass coral growth corrective lenses crystalweed currents cuts cylinder filling daggaolie dagga dead lift decompression algorithms decongestants decongestion deep dive training dehydration discovery dive clubs dive injuries dive medicing dive ready child dive reflex dive tribe divecomputers diver in distress diver rescue diver training dive diving attraction diving hoods doctors dolphns domestic travel dri-suits drowning dry mucous membranes dry suits dry e-cigarettes ear spaces earplugs ears elearning electrolyte imbalance electroytes emergency action plans emergency assessment emergency training environmentally friendly equalising equalizing exposure injuries eyes fEMAL DIVERS fire rescue fish watching fitness Balance fitnes flexible tubing frediving freedivers gas bubble gas poisoning gastric acid gene expression health heartburn heron bridge histidine hospital humidity hypobaric hypoxia immersion and bubble formation immersion pulmonary edema (IPE informal education isopropyl alcohol jaundice join DAN knee lanyard laparoscopic surgery life jackets longevity lower stress lox oxygen level lungs malaise mamalian effect marielife marine pathogens medical Questions medical issues medical procedures medical risk assesment medications mental challenge mental preparedness micro-organisims micro minor illness mucous membranes multilineage dysplasia myelodysplasia nasal steroids nasal near drowning nematocysts neurological newdivers nitrogen bubbles no tanx off-gassed operating theatre operations orthopeadic otitis media out planting outgas pain parameters perforation phillippines phrenic nerve physical challenges pinched nerves plasters pneumoperitoneum polyester-TPU polyether-TPU post dive posture prescription mask preserve prevention professional emergency responders proper equalization psychoactive pulmonary barotrauma. pulmonary injury. pulmunary barotrauma pure oxygen radiation rebreather mask rebreathers retinal detachment risk areas safety stops saturation scissors scuba equipment scuba sea goddesses single use sinus infections situationalawarenes smoking snorkeling. spearfishing spliff sterilising stings strength sub-aquatic sunscreen lotion swimmer's ear swimmer\'s ear swimmers ears tattoo care tecnical diver thermal protection tissue damage toxicity trachea training travel Insurance trimix tympanic membrane unified standards upcycled upwelling virtual coach vision impaired vomiting warmers water quality zinc oxide