Sight Search

Sea Turtles of the World

 By Doug Perrine

They are all big, scaly air-breathers encased in streamlined shells, but don’t let that fool you into thinking that the seven living species of sea turtle are very similar animals. Having diversified for 200 million years, they have evolved different ways of surviving on a planet that has undergone massive upheavals during their tenure. Each species is a unique testament to nature’s inventiveness.

Green Turtles

I thought my opportunity had arrived. I needed a photo of turtles mating for my book, and just across a short stretch of glassy calm sea I spotted a pair of green turtles upright at the surface. I slipped into the water and snorkeled slowly toward the courting couple. Their belly-to-belly orientation was a clue that the female was not interested in the male. By facing off with a male, a female can prevent him from mounting her. This male was attempting to overcome her resistance by slapping her around with his large pectoral fins, each armed with a heavy-duty curved claw. These talons are used to hook onto the forward edges of the female’s carapace (upper shell) during mating, which enables the male to maintain his position for marathon coupling sessions that can last for hours or even days.
The two turtles were so intensely focused on their competition that they did not notice as I quietly finned up to within camera range. But when my shutter closed with a “clack,” the female turned to look at the strange creature that was now only 3 feet away from her. Deciding she wanted no part of me, she took one breath and dove for the depths. Male turtles in the mood, however, are notorious for their lack of discrimination. This one looked momentarily frustrated over the sudden disappearance of the object of his ardor, but then he turned to look at me with an expression that seemed to say, “It’s too bad she’s gone, but I guess you’ll do.”
Green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas) are cleaned of algae by yellow tangs and goldring surgeonfish (also known as kole tangs) near South Kohala, Kona, Hawaii.
The next thing I knew, those clawed flippers were smacking my face as I tried to push away the turtle with my camera and fins while waving frantically to the boat for a pick-up. My boat boys waved back happily, as if to say “Hello to you, too.” The few hundred yards separating me from sanctuary now seemed like the vast expanse of water between Moses and the Promised Land. I eventually climbed aboard with my virtue intact, but I resolved to never again underestimate the persistence and brute strength of this Don Juan of the animal kingdom.

I eventually succeeded in photographing green turtles mating in stacks of two, three and even four. Male sea turtles are rarely discouraged by the fact that another male has already mounted a female. Green turtles have distinguished their species not only with the longest recorded fornications but in many other aspects of their lifestyle and biology as well. Green turtles are the only sea turtles that are primarily herbivores as adults. On a diet consisting mostly of seagrasses and algae, they grow to the second largest size of any sea turtle, achieving a maximum weight of 517 pounds. They are also the only sea turtles that spend time ashore (beyond the time spent by egg-laying females). In a few locations and for reasons that have not been fully elucidated, green turtles of both sexes regularly drag themselves up onto the beach and spend hours basking on dry land.

Green turtles exist throughout the tropics and subtropics and are therefore perhaps the species most familiar to divers. They grow larger than hawksbill turtles, the other species most commonly seen on coral reefs, and have a shell with a smooth margin compared to the jagged edges of hawksbills’ carapaces. The plates that make up green turtles’ shells are smoothly joined rather than overlapping like the plates of hawksbills’ shells. Their beaks are blunter than the pointy, birdlike beaks of hawksbills, and the green is the only sea turtle with a beak that’s serrated. The jagged, toothlike serrations are useful for clipping off blades of seagrass. The green turtle is also the only sea turtle with a single pair of long scales on the forehead. Most other sea turtles have two pairs of round or square scales on the forehead.
Hawksbill sea turtle hatchling (Eretmochelys imbricate, critically endangered), Caribbean
Hawksbill Turtle

Hawksbill sea turtles are found on coral reefs and in other tropical habitats around the world. Their diet is even more unusual than that of green turtles: They feed primarily on sponges, which are full of noxious compounds and are often reinforced with needles of silica or other hard substances, which leads researchers to describe hawksbills as having a “diet of glass.” Hawksbills are sometimes seen tearing apart a section of reef to get at the sponges growing among the coral rubble.

While green turtles can also have beautifully patterned shells, it is the carapace of the hawksbill turtle that provides the easily worked material for tortoiseshell jewelry. In young hawksbills, the scutes (scalelike plates) that make up the carapace overlap and produce a very jagged margin, especially at the rear of the carapace. In older hawksbills, however, the carapace margin can be smooth, and there is little overlap of scutes. Hawksbills can be recognized by their slender heads and pointy, birdlike beaks.

Loggerhead Turtles


The third species of sea turtle likely to be seen by divers is the loggerhead. The big, blocklike head of this species distinguishes it immediately from other sea turtles and provides a clue about its feeding habits. While the serrated jaws of the green turtle are designed for snipping off blades of grass and strands of algae, and the sharp, narrow beak of the hawksbill is well adapted for reaching into crevices in the reef to scrape off sponges, the massive jaws of the loggerhead enable it to crush shelled invertebrates such as crabs, lobsters, scallops, conchs and urchins. An adult loggerhead can crack a thick conch shell that is difficult to chip with a hammer.
Loggerhead turtle (Caretta caretta), Bahamas
Naturally you would not want to have the industrial-strength feeding apparatus of a 400-pound loggerhead closing around any of your body parts, which is why I once found myself swimming as fast as I could in tight circles around the wreckage of an old ship with a large turtle in hot pursuit. I had violated one of the two cardinal rules of wildlife interaction — don’t touch and don’t feed — and I was paying the price. To facilitate the filming of the feeding behavior of this species for a documentary on marine wildlife, I had pulled some hidden shellfish out of the wreck and placed them on the seafloor in front of the turtle. The technique worked well for a few takes, but then the pea-sized reptilian brain of the turtle made the connection between tasty food and the guy in the red wetsuit. Soon the cameraman and lighting assistant were laughing too hard to operate their equipment as they watched me over-breathing my regulator in a panic while trying to outmaneuver the hungry giant.

Another distinguishing characteristic of loggerheads is the color of their shells and skin, which tend toward shades of brown with tones of orange, red or yellow. This is in contrast to the more green, gray and brown color schemes of hawksbill and green turtles. If you are in doubt, the species identification can be confirmed by counting the large scutes on either side of the carapace. There are five lateral scutes on the shell of a loggerhead but only four on green and hawksbill turtles. The loggerhead’s carapace is also longer and more spindle-shaped than the rounder shells of greens and hawksbills.

While all sea turtles are migratory to some extent, loggerhead turtles are simply phenomenal in this regard, regularly crossing the Pacific Ocean between breeding and feeding areas. This is one of the longest migratory paths known in the animal kingdom — about one-third of the distance around the earth.
Type your new text here.
Leatherback Turtles

Leatherbacks are champion swimmers, wandering thousands of miles as they hunt for dense concentrations of drifting jellylike organisms in the open ocean. Because leatherback turtles feed in deep water and usually approach shore only to nest, divers rarely see them. For anyone lucky enough to see one, the huge size and unusual appearance of the leatherback should leave little doubt about its identity. The shell is covered with smooth skin rather than hard scutes, and it has seven prominent longitudinal ridges on the upper surface. The body is nearly black with irregular white splotches, and it’s even more spindle-shaped than the loggerhead’s. The flippers are enormous, spanning up to 9 feet. Instead of a hard beak, like other sea turtles, the leatherback has a muzzle with an M-shaped opening, suitable for slurping down large quantities of gelatinous prey. Spiky projections inside the mouth and throat keep the jellies from swimming back out again.

Leatherbacks are so different from all other sea turtles that they are classified in a separate family. Incredibly for an animal whose diet consists of creatures that are 95 percent water, they grow much faster and larger than other sea turtles, attaining lengths of nearly 10 feet and weights of up to a ton. They achieve this prodigious growth by feeding around the clock, whereas most sea turtles are active by day and rest at night. To find dense concentrations of sea jellies, leatherbacks dive to depths of more than 3,900 feet, which rivals the capabilities of sperm whales and elephant seals.

Unlike other sea turtles or any other living reptiles, leatherbacks are semi-warm-blooded, able to maintain a body temperature at least 32°F higher than the surrounding water temperature. This enables them to withstand the near-freezing temperatures of the dark depths where they hunt and to feed in frigid, high-latitude waters where other turtles cannot survive. A higher internal temperature facilitates faster digestion and a higher metabolic rate, which fuels their fast growth and early maturation. Leatherbacks are estimated to begin breeding at an age of 13 to 14 years, compared with 20 to 50 years for green turtles.
Female olive ridley sea turtles (Lepidochelys olivacea) come ashore at sunset to nest during an “arribada” (mass nesting event) at Ostional, Costa Rica.
Olive Ridley Turtles

Divers do not often encounter olive ridleys, as these turtles do not frequent coral reefs but usually feed either in soft-bottom areas or in open ocean. However, they can be viewed on shore in one of nature’s greatest spectacles. While other types of sea turtle may share preferred nesting beaches with other members of their species, the act of nesting is a solitary event; not so with the two species of ridley turtles, which coordinate their nesting in mass events known as arribadas. During an arribada, which may last for days, hundreds of thousands of female turtles may come ashore on a single stretch of beach with hundreds or thousands digging nests simultaneously. Eggs may go flying through the air as turtles dig up nests previously laid by other turtles.

Olive ridleys are the smallest sea turtles, reaching a maximum weight of only 106 pounds. Adults have a nearly round carapace that is gray, brown or olive in color. The carapace has five to nine lateral scutes (usually six or seven), compared with four or five in other species.
Type your new text here.
Kemp’s Ridley Turtles

Kemp’s ridley turtles are very similar to olive ridleys, growing only two pounds larger, but they are usually lighter in color and have only five lateral scutes. Historically, Kemp’s ridleys also nested in large arribadas, but this occurred at only one remote beach in the Gulf of Mexico — a location unknown to turtle researchers until 1963, by which time the population had been nearly wiped out by egg collectors.

Kemp’s turtles are currently the rarest and most endangered of all sea turtles. Before 1963, scientists were not even sure that this was a valid species, as they were not known to reproduce. Adults are found almost exclusively in the Gulf of Mexico, although juveniles may travel to the North Atlantic. An unknown number were killed in BP’s 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico.

Sightings by divers are very rare, although a very small number have been spotted on Florida reefs. Kemp’s ridleys specialize in feeding on crabs, unlike olive ridleys, which feed on a wide variety of marine organisms. Kemp’s ridleys are the only sea turtles that nest more often by day than by night.
A female Australian flatback sea turtle (Natator depressus) comes ashore to nest, leaving tractorl-ike tracks behind her, at Crab Island, off Cape York Peninsula, Queensland, Australia.
Australian Flatback Turtles

Australian flatback sea turtles are considerably more abundant than Kemp’s ridleys, but are even less likely to be seen by divers. The first underwater photographs of an adult flatback were published in 2012. The distribution of this species is even more restricted than that of Kemp’s ridleys. Because they have a life history that is drastically different from other sea turtle species, flatbacks are found only in the tropical and subtropical areas of the Australian continental shelf.

 All other sea turtles swim out to sea after hatching from eggs laid on a beach, and they spend years drifting and swimming in the open ocean before most settle into coastal habitats as juveniles (though leatherbacks and some olive ridleys and loggerheads stay in the open ocean). Flatbacks, however, stay in coastal waters after hatching and never disperse to the open sea.

 All sizes of these strange turtles prefer silty, nearshore waters inhabited by saltwater crocodiles and deadly jellyfish — environments not conducive to in-water observations. Apart from their nesting behavior, little is known about them, including when and where they mate. Some researchers have never even seen a male. Their dietary preferences are unknown, although the few stomachs that have been examined contained a variety of marine invertebrates.

 Flatbacks grow to about twice the size of ridley turtles, maxing out at 213 pounds. They are generally lighter in color than other sea turtles and have a carapace with a distinctive upturned brim. Researchers believe flatbacks can move faster on land than other sea turtles, as survival of the nesting females sometimes requires them to outrun saltwater crocodiles.

Astonishing Variety


The world’s sea turtles are a far-ranging, deep-diving, long-enduring and truly diverse group of animals. Some are carnivores; others are herbivores. Some are pelagic, while others are coastal. Most are cold-blooded, but some are partially warm-blooded. They represent not only different species but also different genera and even different families.
The sea turtles inhabiting today’s oceans aren’t different from each other like Hereford cows are different from Jerseys; they’re as different as cows are from dogs. Don’t be content just to see “a turtle” — I hope you see a hawksbill or a loggerhead or, with a bit of luck, something as rare as a leatherback.
© Alert Diver — Q3 Summer 2013

Categories

 2023
immersion and bubble formation 2009 232bar 24Hours AGE AIDA Accident management Accidents Acid reflux Acute ailments Adam Sokolski Advanced courses Rescue diver Aerobic exercise After anaesthesia Aged divers Air Ambulance Air Quality Air consumption Air exchange centre Air hose failure Air supply Airway control Air Alert Diver December 2022 Alert Diver Magazine Alert Diver March 2023 Algorithms Alice Cattaneo Alice Modolo Alopecia Alternate Airsources use Alternater Air Source Alternative gas mix Altitude changes Altitude diving Altitude sickness Aluminium Oxide Ama divers Amino acids Amos Nachoum Anaerobic Metabolism Anilao Animal intelligence Animal life Annual renewal Antarctica Anxiety Apea Apex predators Apnea addicts Apnea Apnoea Aqua corps Aquatic creatures Aquatic life Aquatics and Scuba Diving Archaeology Argonaut octopus Argonauts Argon Arrythmia Arterial Gas Embolisms Arterial gas embolism Arthroscopic surgery Aspirin Audible signals Aurel hygiene Australian Flat backed Australia Aviation o2 BCD BHP BLS BOSS400 BWARF Baacterial infections Back adjustment Back pain Back treatment Backextensors Backmount CCR Badages Bag valve mask Bags Bahamas Bail out cylinder Balancing Bandaids Barbell back squat Barometric pressure Barotrauma Barry Skinstad Basic Life Support Basslets Batteries Beach entry Beached coral Becky Kaga Schott Becky Kagan Schott Beluga whales Bench press Bends Benign prostate hyperplasia Benzophenones Beth Neale Beyond Standards Big Sur Bilikiki Tours Biophysics Black Water Photography Black Blood flow Blood pressure Blood thinners Blue Desert Blue Wilderness Blue economy Blue heron Bridge Bluff Blurred vision Boat diving Boat etiquette Boat safety Boats Bobbit worm Boesmans gat Boesmansgat Bonaire Bone fractures Bouyancy compensators Bouyancy control device Bouyancy controls Boyle's Law Boyle\'s Law Bradycardia Brain Brandon Cole Breast Cancer Breath Hold Diving Breath hold diver Breath holding Breath hold Breath-hold Breathing Gas Breathing gas contamination Breathing oxygen Breathing Breathold diving Bright Bank Broken bones Bruising Bubble detection Bubbleformation Buddy Exercise Buddy checks Buoyancy Burn wounds Burnshield Burns Business B CCR CE markings CGASA CMAS CNS CO2 COVID-19 Updates COVID-19 COVID CPR CSI Cabin pressure Caissons diseas California Camera equipment Camera settings Cameras Cancer Remission Cancer treatments Cancer Cannabis and diving Cannabis Cape Diver Research Cape Nudibranchs Cape Town Dive Festival Cape Town Dive Sites Cape Town CapeTown Carbon Monoxide Carbon dioxide Cardiac Health Cardiac research Cardiaccompromise Cardio health Cardiological Cardiomyopathy Caribbean Carmel Bay Carribean Conservation Catalina Island Cave Cave diving Cave divers Cave diving Cave exploration Caves Cave Cenotes Ceotes Challenging Environments Chamber Locations Chamber Safety Chamber maintenance Chamber medical staff Chamber science Chamber treatment Chamber Charging batteries Charles' Law Charles\' Law Charles\\\' Law Charles\\\\\\\' Law Charles\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\' Law Charlie Warland Chemotherapy Chest compressions Children diving Chiropractic Chlorophll Chokka Run Christina Mittermeier Chuck Davis Chuuk lagoon Citizen Conservation Citizen sciences Citizen science Clean Air Cleaning products Cleeve Robertson Climate change Closed Circuit Rebreathers Closed Circuit Rebreather Clothing Cmmunity partnership Coastal diving Coastalexcursion Cold Water Cold care Cold sores ColdWater Cold Commercial Fishing Commercial diving Commercial operations Commercial schools Common consideration Common understanding Communication Compact Cameras Composition Compressed Air Compressed gas Compressor operators Compressors Concussion Congestive heart Faiture Consercation Conservation Photographer Conservation photography Conservation Contact lenses Contaminants Contaminated air Coping with cold Coral Bleaching event Coral Conservation Coral Reefs Coral Restoration Coral bleaching Coral preservation CoralGroupers Corals Core strength Corona virus Coro Coservation Costamed Chamber Courtactions Cozumel Cradiac valvular Crime scene Cristina Mittermeier Crocodile Crohns disease Crowns Crystal build up Crystallizing hoses Cubs Cutaneous decompression Cutting tools Cylinder Ruptures Cylinder capacity Cylinder handwheel Cylinder safety Cylinder valves Cylinder weight Cylinders DAN Courses DAN Europe DAN Profile DAN Researchers DAN hotline service DAN insure DAN medics DAN members DAN report DANTraining DCI DCS Decompressions sickness DCS theories DCS DEMP DM training DNA DPV DReams DSMB Daan verhoeven Dahab Dalton's Law Dalton\'s Law Dalton\\\'s Law Dalton\\\\\\\'s Law Dalton\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\'s Law Danel Wenzel Dangerous Marinelife Dauin island Dave McCowan David Doubilet Dean's Blue Hole Dean\'s Blue Hole Deco dives Decompression Illness Decompression Sickness Decompression Stress Decompression benenfits Decompression chamber Decompression illsnes Decompression ilness Decompression limits Decompression treatment Decompression Decomression sickness Decorator crabs Deep Freediving Deep diving Deep water exploration Deepest SCUBA Dive Delayed Offgassing Dennis Guichard Dental Depth limits Dever Health Diadema Response Team Diagnosis Diaphragms Diets Diopter Dirty water Discomfort Diseases Disinfectants Disinfection Disorientation Distraction Dive Accident Dive Action Dive Buddy Dive Centre Dive Chamber Dive Chmber Dive Computer Dive Destinations Dive Destination Dive Fitness # fit to dive @Dive health Dive H Dive Industry Dive Instruction Dive Instructor Dive Lights Dive Masters Dive Medical Form Dive Medical Dive Practices Dive Professionals Dive Pros Dive Rescue Dive Research Dive Safari Dive Safety Tips Dive South Africa Dive Taiwan Dive Training Dive Travel Wakatobi Dive Travel Dive accidents Dive bell Dive buddies Dive caves Dive centre rules Dive communications Dive computers Dive courses Dive cover Dive cylinder Aluminium Dive equipment Dive excursions Dive exercise Dive exeriences Dive experience Dive fitness Dive gear Dive heallth Dive health Dive in Africa Dive insurance Dive leaders Dive masks Dive medical insurance Dive medicals Dive medicines Dive medicine Dive operators Dive opportunities Dive planning Dive point Dive procedures Dive safety 101 Dive safety briefing Dive safety Dive safe Dive skills Dive staff Dive teams Dive travels DiveLIVE DiveTravel Diveleader training Diveleaders Divelights Diver Ethisc Diver Food Diver Health Diver Profile Diver Travel Diver education Diver infliencers Diver on surface Diver recall Diverover 50 Divers Alert Diversafety Divers Divesites Diving Divas Diving Equipment Diving Family Diving Fatalities Diving Feet Diving Helmets Diving Kids Diving Programs Diving Trauma Diving career Diving emergencies Diving emergency management Diving etiquette Diving fit Diving guidelines Diving history Diving injuries Diving science Diving suspended Diving Dizziness Dizzyness Documentary photography Dolphins Domestic Donating Blood Donation Doug Perrine Dowels Dr Rob Schneider Drift diving Drysuit diving Drysuit valves Drysuits Durban Dynamic environment Dyperbaric medicines EAPs EAP EKG EMS EN standards Ear barotrauma Ear pressure Ear wax Ears injuries Eat fish Eco friendly Ecowise Education Electronic Elizabeth Bockheim Embolisms Emergency Action Plan Emergency Planning Emergency action planning Emergency contact Emergency decompression Emergency plans Emergency treatments Emergency underwater Oxygen Recompression Emergency Endurance Entry Envenomations Enviromental Protection Environmental factors Environmental impact Environmental managment Environmental stewardship Equalisation Equalise Equalization Equipment care Equipment failure Equipment hygiene Equipment inspection Equipment significance Evacuations Evacuation Evaluations Even Breath Evironmetaly friendly Exercise Exercising Exhaustion Exploration dives Exposure Protection Extended divetime Extinction Extinguisher Extreme treatments Eye injuries Eye protection FAQ Face computer Factor V Leiden Failures FalseBay Diving Fatigue Faulty equipment Feet Femal diver Female divers Fenivir Fetus development Field practice Filling stations Fillings Fin Foot Fins Fire Coral Fire Safety Fire extinguisher Firefighting Fires First Aid Equipment First Aid Kit First Aid Trainig First Aid Training First Aid kits First Aid Fish Identification Fish Life Fishing Fish Fit to dive Fitness Levels Fitness Training Fitness evaluation Fitness to dive Fitnesstrainng Fitness Flying Focus lights Food Footissues Foundations Fractures Francesca Diaco Francois Burman Fred Buyle Fredive Free Student cover Free diving Free flow Freedive Competition Rules Freedive Competiton Freedive INstructor Freedive Safety Freedive Training Freedive competition Freedive computer Freedive modes Freedive rescue procedures Freediver Staff Instructor Freediver Freedive Freediving Instructors Freediving performance Freediving Fun Divers Zanzibar Fur rade Galapagos Gar Waterman Gardens of The Queen Gas Density Gas Planning Gas consumption Gas emboli Gas laws Gas management Gas mixes GasPerformance Gasblends Gases Gass bubbles Gastoeusophagus Gastric bypass Gastroenterologist Gas Gear Servicing Georgina Jones Germs Geyer Bank Giant Kelp Forest Giant Kelp Giant stride Girls that Scba Gobies Golden fish Gordon Hiles Great White Sharks Green sea turtle Green turles Greenlings Guidebook Guinness World Record Gutt irritations HBOT HBO HCV HELP HIRA HMLI HMS Britanica Haemorhoid treatment Hand signals Harry Chammas Havanna Hawaii Hawksbill Hazard Description Hazardous Marine life Hazardous marinelife Head injuries Headaches Health practitioner Healthy Food Heart Attack Heart Health Heart Rate monitor Heart fitness Heart rates Heart rate Heart Heat loss Heat stress Helen Walne Heliox Helium Gas Helium Hematoma Hemodynamic Hepatitis C Hepatitus B Hiatal Hernia High Pressure vessels High pressure hoses High temperatures Hilmar Luckhoff Hip strength Hip surgery Hippocampus History Hole in the heart Hood Hot Human diver Humans Hydrate Hydration Hydrogen Hydroids Hydrostatic pressure Hygiene Hyperbaric Chamber Hyperbaric Oxygen Treatments Hyperbaric Oxygen Hyperbaric research Hyperbaric treatment Hyperbarics Hypertension Hypothermia Hypoxia I-52 found INclusivity IdentiFin Imaging Immersion Immine systems In Water Recompression Increased pressure Indemnity form Indian Ocean Indigo SCuba Indonesia Inert gas Infections Infra red Imaging Inhaca Ocean Alliance Injections Inner ear Instinct Instruction Instructors Insulation Insurance policy Insurance Integrated Physiology International travel International Internship programs Internship Interval training Investigations Irritation Irukandji Syndrome Islamorada Isotta housing Italy Itchy Rash Its OK Jellyfish Jennifer Hayes Jill Heinerth Joanna Wyrebek John Vowles Joint pain Joshua Journal for Technical Diving Junior Open Water Diver KZN South Coast KZN Karen van den Oever Kate Jonker KateJonker Kelp Forest Kelp forests KelpForests Ken Finlay Kenya Kidneys Kids scubadiver Komati Springs KwaZulu Natal Kwazulu-Natal LED lights LED Labour laws Lake Huron Lara Lambiase Laryngospasm Lauren Arthur Leanne Walmsley Learning to dive Leatherbacks Leatherback Legal Network Legal advice Legislation Lembeh Straights Lenses Leslie Lwaney Leukemis Liability Insurance Liability Risks Liability releases Liability Life expectancy Lifestyle Lighting equipment Lighting Lightroom editing Lights Lionfish Live aboard diving Liveaboard Liver Toxicity Liver diseas Liz Louw Llandudno Loss of consciousness Lost at sea Lost divers Low Visability Low blood platelets Low blood pressure Low pressure deterioration Low volume masks Lumpsuckers Lung Irritation Lung flexibility Lung function Lung injuries Lung over expansion Lung squeeze Lung surgery Lung MOD MOzambique diving MPA Macro photography Mafia Island Maintenance Malaria Mammalian Dive Response Mammalian effect Manatees Mandarin Fish Marfan syndrome Marine Biologist Marine Biology Marine Mega fauna Marine Science Marine Scientists Marine conservation Marine parks Marine plants Marinelife Marinescience Mark Barker Markus Dirschi Marlin Marne protecte areas Mask clearing Masks Mask Master scuba diver Matty Smith Maximum operating depth Medical FAQ Medical Q Medical emergencies Medical forms Medical oxygen Medical questionaire Medical statement Medical team Medicalquestionaires Medicalresearch Medicalstudents Medication Mehgan Heaney-Grier Membership benefits Menopause Menstruation Mental health Mermaid Danii Mesophotic Metotrexate Mexico Michael Aw Micro Photography Microbubbles Middle ear pressure Mike Bartick Military front press Military Misool Resort Raja Ampat Mixed Gas Mnemba Ataol Mono Fins Mooring lines More pressure Motion sickness Motionsickness Mount Kilimanjaro Mozambique Muck Diving Muscle pain Mycobacterium marinum NDL limits NSRI Narcosis National Geographic Nature Nausea Nauticam Ambassadors Nauticam Ambassador Nautilus Navigation Ndibranchs Neck pain Neoprene layers Neuro assessments Neurocognitive research Neurological assessments Neuromotor exercises New Caledonia Nichola Bird Nicorette Nicotine Nitrogen Narcosis Nitrogen build up Nitrox No Decompression Limits No-decompression limits No-decompression Non-nano zinc oxide Non-rebreather Mask Non-smoking Nondiving related illness Nonrebreather masks Normal Air North Sulawesi Northern Taiwan Nosebleeds Nudibranchs Nuno Gomes Nutrition O2 enriched O2 oxygen provider. O2 providers O2 servicing O2 treatments O2treatments OOxygen maintenance Ocean Alliance Ocean Projects Ocean Research Ocean animals Ocean clean up Ocean community Ocean conservation Ocean life Ocean mammals Ocean migrations Ocean pollution Oceangate Ocean Octopus Oil contamination Olive Ridley Open Ocean Open water divers Operatorethics Optical focus Oral contraseptives Orbital implants Oronasal mask Osteonecrosis Otters Out and about Out of air Outer ears Outreach Overhead Envirenments Oxygen Administration Oxygen Cylinder Oxygen Toxicity Oxygen Units Oxygen deficit Oxygen deicit Oxygen dificiency Oxygen ears Oxygen equipment Oxygen explosions Oxygen kit Oxygen masks Oxygen providers Oxygen safety Oxygen supplies Oxygen supply Oxygen systems Oxygen therapy Oxygen treatment Oxygen P J Prinsloo PADI Freedivers PFI PFOs PFO PJP Tech PTSD Paper Nautilus Paralysis Parentalsupervision Part 3 Partner Training Patent foramen ovale PatentForamen Ovale Pemba Island Peri-peri Divers Personal Perspective Petar Denoble Peter Lindholm Philippine Islands Philippines Phillipines Photographers Photographer Photography tips Photography Physical Fitness Physioball Physiology Physiotherapy Pills Pilot Whale Pistons Planning Plastic pollution Plastic Plimsoll Interface Pneumonia Pneumothorax Poison Pole fishing Polka Dot Bat fish Pollution Pool Diving Pool chemicals Pool maintenance Pool workout Pools Post traumatic Post-dive Potuguese man-of-war Pre-dive fitness Pre-dive Predive check Pregnancy Pregnant divers Preparation Prepared diver Press Release Preventions ProDive Port Elizabeth Product scuba nudi Professional rights Protection Provider course Psycological Pulmanologist Pulmonary Barotrauma Pulmonary Bleb Pulmonary Edema Pulmonary Hypertension Pulse Punture wounds Pure Air Pure Apnea Purge Quit Smoking Q RAID South Africa RCAP REEF RMV ROS Radio communications Range of motion Rashes Reactive oxygen species Rebreather diving Rebreatherdive Recces Rechargeable batteries. Rechargeable Recompression chamber Recompression treatment Recompression Recreational dives Recycle Red SEA Reef Chcek Reef Conservation Reef Environmental Education Foundation Reef protection Reef safe Reef surveyors Refractive correction Regal Sea Goddesses Regulator failure Regulators Regulator Remote areas Remote dive locations Remote islands Renewable Rental gear Report incidents Rescue Divers Rescue Procedure Rescue breathing Rescue breaths Rescue diver Rescue skills Rescue skill Rescue training Rescue Researcher profile Research Respitory Minute Volume Resume diving Return To Diving Return to diving Reuseable items Review Rhinopias Risk Assessments Risk assesments Risk assessment Risk elements Risk management Risk mitigation Risks of Seizures River diving Riviera Maya Roatan Marine Park Roatan Ronblom Rubber ducks SABS 019 SAC SMB SRC SafariLive Safe diving practices Safety Concerns Safety Divers Safety Gear Safety Stop Safety in Air Safety SaherSafe Barrier Salisbury Island Salish Seas Salty Wanderer Sanitising Sanne Volja Sara Andreotti Sara Banderby Sara Campbell Sardine Run Sargassum sea Saturation Diving Saturation diver Save our seas Schrimps Science of diving Science Scoliosis Scombroid Poisoning Scorpion Fish Scuba Air Quality Scuba Guru Scuba Injury Scuba Instructor Scuba children Scuba divers Scuba dive Scuba diving Scuba education Scuba gear Scuba health Scubalearners Scubalife Sea Horses Sea Turtles Sea rescue Sea slugs Seagrass Sealcolonies Sealife Seals Seasickness Seaweeds Seaweed Sea Self Rescue Send Nudi Shallow Water Blackout Shallow dives Shark Protection Shark Research Shark conservation Shark diving Shark specialist Sharks Shipwrecks Shit Happens Shore entries Shoulder strength Sidemount Sideplank Signalling devices Signs and Symptoms Silty bottoms Sit-ups Sixgill Sharks Skills in action Skin Bends Skin outbreak Skin rash Smart phone photography Snells Window Snorkeling Snorkels Social Distancing Sodwana Bay Solomon Islands Sonnier bank South Africa Southern Sea Otters SpareAir Special Operations Special forces units Sperm Whales Spinal Bend Spinal bends Spinal cord DCS Spinal dura Spinal pain Spinner dolphins Spleen Splits Sports medicine Squeezes Squid Run Stability exercise Stage cylinder Standars Statin Mediction Stay Fit Stay Warm Steel Stefan Randig Stents Step ups Stephen Frink Stepping up Stobes Stockton Rush Stonetown Stretch band exercise Stretch bands Stretching Strobe Lighting Strobes Stroke Submerge tech Submerged Sudafed Sulawesi Sun protection Sun screen Sunscreen Supplemental oxygen Surface Air Consumption Surface Consumption Rate Surface Marker Buoys Surface supplied Air Surfaced Surfers Surgeries Surgery Survivor Suspension training Swim Fitness Swimmers health SwimmingIn wateractivities Swimming Sylvia Earl Symbiosis Symbiosys TRavel safety Tabata protocol Talya Davidoff Tank valve Tanzania Tara Panton Tattoes Tchnical diving Team Awareness Tec Clark Tec divers Tec diving Tech diving Technical Diving Technical diver Technical divng Temperature Homeostatis The Bends The Cavettes The Produce The Titanic Wreck The Wild Coast The greatest Shoal The silent world The truth Thermal Notions Thermoregulation Thomas Peschak Thresher shark Thunder Bay National Marine Sanctuary Tides Tips and trick Tonga Tooth squeeze Transplants Trashbag Trauma Travel Safe Travel destinations Travel smarter Travel tips Travel Tropical Coastal Management Tulamben Tullum Tulum. Tumbatu Island Tuna Tunnelling Turks and Caicos Turtles Tweezers Ultrsound Umkomaas Unconscious ascent Unconscious diver Unconsciousness Underground waterways Underground work Underseaa world Underwaater Photos Underwater Photography Underwater Photograper Underwater Photograpgraphy Underwater Photographer Manirelife Underwater Photographers Underwater Research Underwater camera Underwater critters Underwater floral Gardens Underwater hockey Underwater imaging Underwater lights Underwater models Underwater photographer Underwater photography Underwater photos Underwater pho Underwater sound Underwatercommunications Underwater Underwtaer photography University of Stellenbosch Unresponsive Urchins Urinary retention. VGE Vacations Vaccines Vagus nerve Valsalva manoeuvers Valve stem seals Vape Vaping Vasopressors Vasvagal Syncope Venous gas emboli Ventilate Venting Verna van Schak Veterinarian Videography Vincenzo Ferri. Virus infections Volatile fuels WWII wrecks War stories Wash gear Washout treatments Wastewater Watchman device Water Resistance Water Weakness Weck Weigang Xu Weightloss Weights West Papua Western Cape Diving Wet Lenses Wet diving bell Wetsuit fitting Wetsuites Wetsuits Wetsuit White balance Whitetpped Sharks Wide Angle Photos Wide angles Wildlife park Wildlife Winter Wits Underwater Club Wolf Eels Woman and diving Woman in diving Woman's Health Womans health Woman Women In Diving SA Women and Diving Women in Freediving Women in diving Womens Month Womens health Work of Breathing Workout World Deeepst Dive Record World Records Wound dressings Wreck History Wreck divers Wreck dive Wreck diving Wreck exploration Wreckdiving Wrecks Wrist technology Yachts Yoga Youth diver Zandile Ndholvu Zanzibar Zoology Zooplankton \ Blennies abrasion absolute pressure acoustic neuroma excision adverse seas air-cushioned alert diver altitude alveolar walls anemia antibiotics anticoagulants antiseptics ascent bandages barodontalgia bent-over barbell rows bioassays biodiversity bloodcells blue carbon body art breathing air calories burn canal blockage cannabis oil carbon dioxide toxicity cardiovascular career developments cerebrospinal fluid cervical spine checklist chemo port children child chronic obstructive pulmonary disease clearances closed circuit scuba compressed gass coral growth corrective lenses crystalweed currents cuts cylinder filling daggaolie dagga dead lift decompression algorithms decongestants decongestion deep dive training dehydration discovery dive clubs dive injuries dive medicing dive ready child dive reflex dive tribe divecomputers diver in distress diver rescue diver training dive diving attraction diving hoods doctors dolphns domestic travel dri-suits drowning dry mucous membranes dry suits dry e-cigarettes ear spaces earplugs ears elearning electrocardiogram electrolyte imbalance electroytes emergency action plans emergency assessment emergency training environmentally friendly equalising equalizing exposure injuries eyes fEMAL DIVERS fire rescue fish watching fitness Balance fitnes flexible tubing frediving freedivers gas bubble gas poisoning gastric acid gene expression health heartburn heron bridge histidine hospital humidity hypobaric hypoxia immersion and bubble formation immersion pulmonary edema (IPE informal education isopropyl alcohol jaundice join DAN knee lanyard laparoscopic surgery life jackets longevity lower stress lox oxygen level lungs malaise mamalian effect marielife marine pathogens medical Questions medical issues medical procedures medical risk assesment medications mental challenge mental preparedness micro-organisims micro minor illness mucous membranes multilineage dysplasia myelodysplasia nasal steroids nasal near drowning nematocysts neurological newdivers nitrogen bubbles no tanx off-gassed operating theatre operations orthopeadic otitis media out planting outgas pain parameters perforation phillippines phrenic nerve physical challenges pinched nerves plasters pneumoperitoneum polyester-TPU polyether-TPU post dive posture prescription mask preserve prevention professional emergency responders proper equalization psychoactive pulmonary barotrauma. pulmonary injury. pulmunary barotrauma pure oxygen radiation rebreather mask rebreathers retinal detachment risk areas safety stops saturation scissors scuba equipment scuba sea goddesses single use sinus infections situationalawarenes smoking snorkeling. spearfishing spliff sterilising stings strength sub-aquatic sunscreen lotion swimmer's ear swimmer\'s ear swimmers ears tattoo care tecnical diver thermal protection tissue damage toxicity trachea training travel Insurance trimix tympanic membrane unified standards upcycled upwelling virtual coach vision impaired vomiting warmers water quality zinc oxide