Sight Search

Diving in a Time Capsule

CREDITS | Text and Images By Becky Kagan Schott

Thunder Bay National Marine Sanctuary is America’s treasure.

The Florida Keys, Flower Garden Banks off the Texas coast, California’s Channel Islands and North Carolina’s USS Monitor shipwreck are among the more well-known of the 14 national marine sanctuaries the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) manages. They are all incredible, but every summer one of my must-visit shipwreck destinations is the Thunder Bay National Marine Sanctuary in Lake Huron off the northeastern coast of Michigan.
The Kyle Spangler was a two-masted schooner that collided with another schooner in 1860 and sank into 180 feet of water.
Thunder Bay has nearly 100 known shipwrecks, and others are still being discovered. The oldest shipwreck there sank in 1849, but many wrecks are from the mid- and late 1800s to the early 1900s. The location, history and variety of ships — from wooden schooners to freighters — make Thunder Bay special. The wrecks are at various depths, ranging from the snorkel zone to recreational and technical diving levels.
Known as Shipwreck Alley, this area has unpredictable weather, strong winds, dense fog and rocky shoals that have sent many ships to the lake bottom. Collisions, fires and ice have also contributed to the collection of wrecks throughout the Great Lakes. History is preserved below the surface here, with vessels ranging from modern steel freighters to a pre-Civil War sidewheel steamer. The national significance of this history led to the sanctuary’s creation in 2000 and expansion in 2014 from 448 to 4,300 square miles. Future NOAA expeditions will further explore Thunder Bay, which may hold up to 200 wrecks.
In 2011 I worked with NOAA and Sony on the Project Shiphunt documentary. We spent a few weeks in Alpena, Michigan, searching for unexplored wrecks and found the schooner M.F. Merrick and the inverted freighter Etruria in more than 300 feet of water. We were the first people to lay eyes on them in more than a century. I left Michigan with a new obsession: diving the Great Lakes.
During my time there, I met passionate archaeologists from the sanctuary and spent a lot of time at the beautiful museum in Alpena. Their enthusiasm for protecting the resources and educating the public was infectious. After I left, I couldn’t get the wrecks out of my mind; later that year, when the water warmed to at least 38°F, I revisited the sanctuary. The perfectly preserved wooden wrecks and schooners were irresistible draws. Sitting on the bottom with their masts standing straight, they look as if they are still sailing. In my mind this was how shipwrecks should always look.
Few charters visit the wrecks, even though many sites have buoys. Most of the charters are for six passengers and run for only a few months during the summer. When you first pull out of the marina, the Caribbean-blue water is visually impressive, but it’s not Caribbean warm. Temperatures can range from 37°F to 40°F on the bottom and are usually in the 60°F range in late summer from 30 feet to the surface. Many recreational divers wear thick wetsuits, but I highly recommend a drysuit.
The marina in Alpena is an excellent place to depart from to see the wrecks in recreational limits
The best months to dive are June through September, when air temperatures are pleasant and conditions vary from dense fog to full sun. Most areas usually have little to no current, and most of the sites have a mooring buoy for ascents and descents and to protect the wrecks from anchor or grapple damage. Invasive quagga mussels have cleaned the water over the past two decades, leaving stellar visibility that typically ranges from 50 to more than 100 feet.
These are natural shipwrecks, many of them wooden, and the cold, fresh water has preserved them. They would not be intact or possibly even exist if they were in salt water. Diving here is like being inside a time capsule. The wrecks are irreplaceable, so it’s important not to damage them, and it’s illegal to remove any artifacts from the sites. As a photographer I enjoy descending to a shipwreck and seeing the wooden wheel in place, a bell, a galley full of teacups and plates, and personal belongings such as binoculars and clothing still there. Each wreck has an extraordinary story and history to tell through its remaining artifacts.
Thunder Bay is my favorite place to wreck dive because everything is well preserved, and the stories of mystery, tragedy and survival are captivating.

Recreational Sites

The Grecian was a 296-foot steel bulk freighter that first sank in 1906 after hitting a submerged rock in the St. Mary’s River. The ship was refloated, but it suddenly sank again while being towed to Detroit for repairs. The entire crew survived, but the vessel met its final resting place in 100 feet of water. The bow and stern are upright and intact, but the midsection has collapsed. At this popular site, divers can see the propeller, engine, boiler and deck equipment. The bow still has the windlass and sits with a slight starboard list. The Grecian’s sister ship, the Norman, rests 30 miles north in 200 feet of water.
The stern of the Grecian sits upright in 60 to 100 feet of water and is a popular recreational site in the sanctuary.
The Monohansett at just 20 feet deep is excellent for snorkeling or diving. Built in 1872, this wooden steam barge was 160 feet long and carried loads of coal. The ship caught fire in November 1907 and burned to the waterline near Thunder Bay Island. The crew suffered minor burns and lost their belongings, but all survived thanks to the life-saving station on the island. Diving the Monohansett is a great experience. It sits in three sections, but the water is generally so clear you can see most of the wreck from the surface. Divers can swim along the hull, which looks like ribs, and see the propeller and shaft. The large boiler sits nearby at this photogenic site.
The stern section of the Monohansett sits in just 20 feet of water.
The W.P. Thew was a 132-foot steam barge launched in 1884 and designed to carry logs, lumber, railroad ties and shingles, one of many 19th-century steamers intended for this purpose. After 25 years in service, the W.P. Thew sank in 1909 when it collided with a freighter in heavy fog. The damage sent it to its final resting place in 84 feet of water. Machinery, deck equipment, boilers and other artifacts are splayed out on the bottom. You can make out the fantail, and the prop and shaft are visible. Many eel-like burbot fish are typically at this site, so watch for the rounded tail fin.

The E.B. Allen is another popular recreational site, especially for divers wanting to see a wooden schooner. This 134-foot-long, two-masted schooner sank in November 1871 while carrying a cargo of grain to Buffalo, New York; a heavy fog developed, and the schooner Newsboy tore a large hole in the portside hull. The crew made it aboard the Newsboy before watching the E.B. Allen disappear below the waves into 100 feet of water. Today the wreck sits upright with its masts fallen. When you first descend and the ship comes into view, the schooner’s windlass and anchor chains are visible on the bow. When swimming along the deck, you’ll see other machinery, and the rudder is still at the stern but mostly buried in the lake bottom.
A diver ascends after exploring the E.B. Allen.
The Joseph S. Fay is one of my favorite sites. Visitors can access the site from shore near 40 Mile Point Lighthouse by snorkeling, diving, paddleboarding or boating. It is a bit of a swim, but the shore slopes gradually to where the wreck sits in 18 feet of water. A buoy marks the site. The 216-foot bulk freighter Joseph S. Fay was built in 1871 and carried iron ore. In October 1905 it encountered a fierce gale in northern Lake Huron and hit submerged rocks at 40 Mile Point. The ship, which was fully loaded and towing the ore-carrying barge D.P. Rhodes, quickly broke apart, and its stern split open. The hull and iron ore cargo still sit on the bottom along with the rudder, shaft and some artifacts. A large portion of the freighter’s starboard side is on the beach to the north of the lighthouse. Depending on conditions, it can sometimes be visible or otherwise covered in sand. The underwater visibility is generally excellent, and the water here is much warmer than on deeper sites.
The stern section of the Joseph S. Fay sits in shallow water accessible by snorkelers and divers of all experience levels.
Technical Diving Sites

The Typo was a three-masted wooden schooner that sank after a collision on Oct. 14, 1899. It sits upright with the bowsprit intact and all its rigging in place. As you descend toward the wreck, a mast protrudes from the dark depths at around 100 feet. Upon reaching the wreck at 170 to 195 feet, you’ll see the windlass and two wooden stock anchors stowed on the bow railings before encountering the ship’s bell. Not many bells remain on shipwrecks, so it’s exciting to see one. The bowsprit is stunning, and if you descend into the sand to look up at it, it almost looks like something from a movie set. Fallen masts, deadeyes, pulleys and other rigging are on the deck. The Typo was carrying coal when it was struck, and it went down hard and fast. The stern bears the impact damage, and coal litters the lake bottom. Many artifacts are in the coal piles, including the remains of the four crew members who went down with the ship. Divers are respectful and do not disturb them.
The wooden wheel on the stern of the Cornelia B. Windiate is one of the first things divers see as they descend to the wreck.
The Cornelia B. Windiate disappeared during a fierce storm in November 1875. It was presumed to have sunk in Lake Michigan, but it was discovered in Lake Huron more than a century later. No one knows what happened to the crew of nine. Next to the wreck sits the yawl boat, which is a haunting reminder that all hands were lost. This 138-foot three-masted schooner was in perfect condition when discovered in 1986. All three masts are standing, the wheel is intact, a spiral wooden staircase leads into the preserved cabin, and the rudder is turned hard. The bow has wooden stock anchors and a windlass, but the bowsprit is broken. If you look closely on the portside stern, you can still read the name Cornelia B. Windiate etched into the wood. Plenty of artifacts remain on the deck to see, but the real gem is simply letting yourself be taken back in time.
The Newell A. Eddy was a 242-foot three-masted schooner barge that carried wheat. While under tow in April 1893, the Newell A. Eddy broke free from its consort, the Charles A. Eddy, during a strong gale. The storm took the ship and its entire crew. A research vessel discovered the wreck in 1992 with all three masts standing and in pristine condition in 168 feet of water near Cheboygan, Michigan. This impressive ship sits on the boundary of the sanctuary. There is typically no mooring, but captains will put out a jug to mark the downline, which does not go to the wreck but rather to an anchor chain sprawled out across the lake bottom. When you get to 120 feet on the line, you can start looking for the wreck or continue on the line to the bottom and follow the anchor chain. The visibility is usually just enough to see the tip of the big bowsprit. I typically put a strobe on the downline as a visual. This enormous wreck has an intact deck at about 135 to 140 feet, and dropping inside the cargo holds takes you to 165 feet. The impressive bowsprit and standing masts are incredible. There is still rigging, and most of the Newell A. Eddy is very well preserved, although parts of the stern have broken away. Visibility can vary from 40 to 70 feet, and this area tends to have a lot of particulates in the water.
The massive bow of the Newell A. Eddy still has rigging attached and the name on the capstan.
The S.S. Florida was a 270-foot wooden steamer built in 1889 in Buffalo, New York, that carried a mix of package freight. On a foggy day in May 1897, the steamer George W. Roby struck the Florida, almost cutting it in half. The Florida sank in 12 minutes to 206 feet, where it sits mostly intact. The distinct V shape from the collision on its starboard side is impressive and a great opening for entering the wreck and seeing its freight of flour, merchandise and lard barrels. Some barrels float against the ship’s ceiling, and others have broken open, leaving bright white mounds on the floor. A portion of the galley reveals a teapot and other dishes. On the bow the anchors sit tight, and the capstan reads S.S. Florida 1889. The stern has collapsed, exposing the engine with its gauges visible. An iron bell sits nearby, off the port side near the break on the stern.

The Thunder Bay National Marine Sanctuary protects and manages these exceptional and historical shipwrecks. The wrecks highlighted here are only a fraction of what you can find in this area of the Great Lakes. NOAA and other shipwreck hunters discover new wrecks every few years using the latest sidescan technology and advances in dive technology. Diving these wrecks makes me realize there is still so much more to discover. Visiting a shipwreck that not many people have seen for more than 140 years is beyond unique, and there are few places in the world where you can dive and feel like you’ve gone back in time.
To learn more, visit View Schott’s photogrammetry on the Joseph S. Fay at


immersion and bubble formation 232bar AGE AIDA Accident management Accidents Acid reflux Acute ailments Advanced courses Rescue diver Aerobic exercise After anaesthesia Aged divers Air Quality Air exchange centre Air hose failure Air supply Airway control Air Alert Diver Magazine Algorithms Alice Cattaneo Alice Modolo Alternate Airsources use Alternater Air Source Alternative gas mix Altitude changes Altitude diving Altitude sickness Aluminium Oxide Ama divers Amino acids Amos Nachoum Anaerobic Metabolism Animal life Annual renewal Antarctica Anxiety Apex predators Apnea Apnoea Aqua corps Aquatic creatures Aquatic life Aquatics and Scuba Diving Archaeology Argonaut octopus Argonauts Argon Arrythmia Arterial Gas Embolisms Arterial gas embolism Arthroscopic surgery Aspirin Audible signals Aurel hygiene Australian Flat backed BCD BHP BLS BWARF Back adjustment Back pain Back treatment Backextensors Backmount CCR Badages Bag valve mask Bahamas Balancing Bandaids Barbell back squat Barometric pressure Barotrauma Basic Life Support Batteries Beach entry Becky Kaga Schott Becky Kagan Schott Bench press Bends Benign prostate hyperplasia Benzophenones Beth Neale Beyond Standards Bilikiki Tours Biophysics Black Blood flow Blood pressure Blood thinners Blue Desert Blue Wilderness Blue economy Blurred vision Boat diving Boat safety Boesmans gat Boesmansgat Bonaire Bone fractures Bouyancy compensators Bouyancy controls Boyle's Law Boyle\'s Law Bradycardia Brain Brandon Cole Breast Cancer Breath Hold Diving Breath hold diver Breath holding Breath hold Breath-hold Breathing Gas Breathing gas contamination Breathing Breathold diving Bright Bank Broken bones Bruising Bubble detection Bubbleformation Buddy Exercise Buddy checks Buoyancy Burnshield CCR CGASA CMAS CO2 COVID-19 Updates COVID-19 COVID CPR Cabin pressure Caissons diseas California Camera equipment Camera settings Cameras Cancer Remission Cancer treatments Cancer Cannabis and diving Cannabis Cape Town Dive Festival Cape Town Dive Sites Cape Town CapeTown Carbon Monoxide Carbon dioxide Cardiac research Cardiaccompromise Cardio health Cardiological Cardiomyopathy Caribbean Carmel Bay Catalina Island Cave diving Cave exploration Cave Challenging Environments Chamber Safety Chamber science Chamber treatment Charging batteries Charles' Law Charles\' Law Charles\\\' Law Charles\\\\\\\' Law Charles\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\' Law Charlie Warland Chemotherapy Chest compressions Children diving Chiropractic Chlorophll Chokka Run Christina Mittermeier Citizen Conservation Citizen sciences Citizen science Clean Air Cleaning products Closed Circuit Rebreathers Closed Circuit Rebreather Cmmunity partnership Coastal diving Coastalexcursion Cold Water Cold care ColdWater Cold Commercial Fishing Commercial diving Commercial schools Common consideration Common understanding Communication Composition Compressed Air Compressed gas Compressor operators Compressors Concussion Congestive heart Faiture Consercation Conservation Photographer Conservation photography Conservation Contact lenses Contaminants Contaminated air Coping with cold Coral Conservation Coral Reefs Coral Restoration Coral bleaching Coral preservation CoralGroupers Corals Core strength Corona virus Coro Costamed Chamber Courtactions Cozumel Cradiac valvular Cristina Mittermeier Crohns disease Crowns Crystal build up Crystallizing hoses Cutaneous decompression Cylinder Ruptures Cylinder capacity Cylinder handwheel Cylinder safety Cylinder valves Cylinder weight DAN Courses DAN Profile DAN Researchers DAN medics DAN members DAN report DANTraining DCI DCS Decompressions sickness DCS theories DCS DEMP DM training DNA DReams Daan verhoeven Dahab Dalton's Law Dalton\'s Law Dalton\\\'s Law Dalton\\\\\\\'s Law Dalton\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\'s Law Danel Wenzel Dangerous Marinelife Dauin island Dave McCowan David Doubilet Dean's Blue Hole Dean\'s Blue Hole Deco dives Decompression Illness Decompression Sickness Decompression Stress Decompression chamber Decompression illsnes Decompression limits Decompression treatment Decompression Decorator crabs Deep Freediving Deep diving Deep water exploration Deepest SCUBA Dive Delayed Offgassing Dental Depth limits Dever Health Diagnosis Diaphragms Diopter Diseases Disinfection Dive Buddy Dive Chamber Dive Computer Dive Destinations Dive Destination Dive H Dive Industry Dive Instruction Dive Instructor Dive Medical Form Dive Medical Dive Practices Dive Professionals Dive Pros Dive Rescue Dive Research Dive Safari Dive Safety Tips Dive South Africa Dive Training Dive Travel Wakatobi Dive Travel Dive accidents Dive buddies Dive computers Dive courses Dive cylinder Aluminium Dive excursions Dive exercise Dive exeriences Dive experience Dive fitness Dive gear Dive heallth Dive health Dive in Africa Dive medicals Dive medicines Dive medicine Dive operators Dive opportunities Dive planning Dive procedures Dive safety 101 Dive safety Dive safe Dive skills Dive staff Dive travels DiveLIVE DiveTravel Diveleader training Diveleaders Diver Health Diver Profile Diver Travel Diver education Diver infliencers Diver on surface Diver recall Diverover 50 Divers Alert Diversafety Divesites Diving Divas Diving Fatalities Diving Feet Diving Kids Diving Programs Diving Trauma Diving career Diving emergencies Diving emergency management Diving fit Diving guidelines Diving injuries Diving suspended Diving Dizziness Dolphins Domestic Donation Doug Perrine Dowels Dr Rob Schneider Drift diving Drysuit diving Drysuit valves Drysuits Dynamic environment Dyperbaric medicines EAPs EAP EMS Ear barotrauma Ear pressure Ear wax Ears injuries Eco friendly Ecowise Education Electronic Emergency Action Plan Emergency Planning Emergency action planning Emergency decompression Emergency plans Emergency treatments Emergency underwater Oxygen Recompression Emergency Endurance Envenomations Enviromental Protection Environmental factors Environmental impact Environmental managment Environmental stewardship Equalisation Equalization Equipment care Equipment failure Equipment inspection Equipment significance Evacuations Evacuation Evaluations Even Breath Evironmetaly friendly Exercise Exercising Exhaustion Exposure Protection Extended divetime Extinguisher Extreme treatments Eye injuries FAQ Face computer Factor V Leiden Failures FalseBay Diving Fatigue Faulty equipment Feet Femal diver Female divers Fetus development Filling stations Fillings Fin Foot Fire Coral Fire Safety Fire extinguisher Firefighting First Aid Equipment First Aid Kit First Aid Trainig First Aid Training First Aid kits First Aid Fish Identification Fish Life Fish Fit to dive Fitness Levels Fitness Training Fitness evaluation Fitness to dive Fitnesstrainng Fitness Flying Focus lights Footissues Foundations Fractures Francesca Diaco Francois Burman Fred Buyle Fredive Free Student cover Free diving Free flow Freedive Competition Rules Freedive Competiton Freedive INstructor Freedive Safety Freedive Training Freedive computer Freedive rescue procedures Freediver Freedive Freediving Instructors Freediving performance Freediving Gar Waterman Gas Density Gas consumption Gas emboli Gas laws Gas mixes GasPerformance Gasblends Gases Gass bubbles Gastoeusophagus Gastric bypass Gastroenterologist Gas Gear Servicing Germs Geyer Bank Giant Kelp Forest Giant Kelp Giant stride Girls that Scba Gobies Gordon Hiles Great White Sharks Green sea turtle Greenlings Guinness World Record Gutt irritations HBOT HCV HELP HIRA HMLI HMS Britanica Haemorhoid treatment Hand signals Harry Chammas Hawaii Hawksbill Hazard Description Hazardous Marine life Hazardous marinelife Head injuries Headaches Health practitioner Heart Attack Heart Health Heart Rate monitor Heart fitness Heart rates Heart rate Heart Heat stress Heliox Helium Hematoma Hemodynamic Hepatitis C Hepatitus B Hiatal Hernia High Pressure vessels High pressure hoses High temperatures Hip strength Hip surgery Hippocampus History Hole in the heart Hood Hot Humans Hydrate Hydration Hydrogen Hydroids Hydrostatic pressure Hygiene Hyperbaric Chamber Hyperbaric Oxygen Treatments Hyperbaric Oxygen Hyperbaric research Hyperbaric treatment Hyperbarics Hypertension Hypothermia Hypoxia I-52 found INclusivity IdentiFin Imaging Immersion Immine systems In Water Recompression Increased pressure Indemnity form Indian Ocean Indigo SCuba Indonesia Inert gas Infections Infra red Imaging Injections Inner ear Instinct Instruction Instructors Insurance Integrated Physiology International travel International Internship programs Internship Interval training Irritation Irukandji Syndrome Isotta housing Itchy Rash Jellyfish Jill Heinerth Joanna Wyrebek Joint pain Journal for Technical Diving Junior Open Water Diver KZN South Coast KZN Karen van den Oever Kate Jonker KateJonker Kenya Kidneys Kids scubadiver Komati Springs KwaZulu Natal LED lights Labour laws Lake Huron Lara Lambiase Laryngospasm Lauren Arthur Learning to dive Leatherback Legal Network Legal advice Legislation Lembeh Straights Lenses Leukemis Liability Risks Liability releases Liability Life expectancy Lifestyle Lighting Lightroom editing Lionfish Live aboard diving Liveaboard Liver Toxicity Liver diseas Liz Louw Loss of consciousness Lost at sea Low Visability Low blood pressure Low pressure deterioration Low volume masks Lumpsuckers Lung Irritation Lung function Lung injuries Lung squeeze Lung surgery Lung MOD MOzambique diving Macro photography Mafia Island Maintenance Malaria Mammalian Dive Response Mammalian effect Mandarin Fish Marfan syndrome Marine Biology Marine Mega fauna Marine Science Marine Scientists Marine conservation Marine parks Marine plants Marinelife Marinescience Markus Dirschi Marlin Mask clearing Masks Master scuba diver Maximum operating depth Medical Q Medical emergencies Medical questionaire Medical statement Medical team Medicalresearch Medicalstudents Medication Mehgan Heaney-Grier Membership benefits Menopause Menstruation Mermaid Danii Mesophotic Metotrexate Mexico Michael Aw Microbubbles Middle ear pressure Mike Bartick Military front press Misool Resort Raja Ampat Mixed Gas Mono Fins Mooring lines More pressure Motion sickness Motionsickness Mount Kilimanjaro Mozambique Muscle pain Mycobacterium marinum NDL limits Narcosis National Geographic Nausea Nautilus Ndibranchs Neck pain Neoprene layers Neuro assessments Neurocognitive research Neurological assessments Neuromotor exercises Nichola Bird Nicorette Nicotine Nitrogen Narcosis Nitrogen build up Nitrox No Decompression Limits No-decompression limits No-decompression Non-nano zinc oxide Non-rebreather Mask Non-smoking Nondiving related illness Nonrebreather masks Normal Air North Sulawesi Nosebleeds Nudibranchs Nuno Gomes O2 oxygen provider. O2 providers O2 servicing O2treatments OOxygen maintenance Ocean Projects Ocean Research Ocean animals Ocean conservation Ocean migrations Ocean pollution Oceangate Octopus Oil contamination Olive Ridley Open Ocean Open water divers Optical focus Oral contraseptives Orbital implants Oronasal mask Osteonecrosis Out and about Out of air Outer ears Outreach Overhead Envirenments Oxygen Administration Oxygen Cylinder Oxygen Units Oxygen deficit Oxygen deicit Oxygen dificiency Oxygen ears Oxygen equipment Oxygen kit Oxygen masks Oxygen providers Oxygen supplies Oxygen supply Oxygen systems Oxygen therapy Oxygen P J Prinsloo PADI Freedivers PFI PFO PJP Tech Paper Nautilus Paralysis Parentalsupervision Part 3 Partner Training Patent foramen ovale Pemba Island Peri-peri Divers Perspective Peter Lindholm Philippine Islands Philippines Phillipines Photographers Photography tips Photography Physical Fitness Physioball Physiology Physiotherapy Pills Pilot Whale Pistons Planning Plastic Plimsoll Interface Pneumonia Pneumothorax Poison Pollution Pool Diving Pool chemicals Pool maintenance Pool workout Pools Post-dive Potuguese man-of-war Pre-dive Predive check Pregnancy Pregnant divers Preparation Prepared diver Press Release Preventions ProDive Port Elizabeth Professional rights Provider course Psycological Pulmanologist Pulmonary Barotrauma Pulmonary Bleb Pulmonary Edema Pulmonary Hypertension Pulse Punture wounds Pure Air Pure Apnea Purge Quit Smoking Q RAID South Africa RCAP REEF Radio communications Range of motion Rashes Rebreather diving Rebreatherdive Rechargeable batteries. Recompression chamber Recompression treatment Recompression Recycle Reef Chcek Reef Conservation Reef Environmental Education Foundation Reef safe Reef surveyors Refractive correction Regal Sea Goddesses Regulator failure Regulators Regulator Remote areas Remote islands Renewable Report incidents Rescue Divers Rescue Procedure Rescue breathing Rescue breaths Rescue diver Rescue skills Rescue skill Rescue training Rescue Research Resume diving Return To Diving Return to diving Reuseable items Risk Assessments Risk assesments Risk assessment Risk elements Risk management Risks of Seizures Roatan Marine Park Roatan SABS 019 SMB SafariLive Safe diving practices Safety Concerns Safety Gear Safety Stop Safety in Air Safety SaherSafe Barrier Salish Seas Salty Wanderer Sanitising Sanne Volja Sara Andreotti Sara Banderby Sara Campbell Sardine Run Sargassum sea Saturation Diving Save our seas Schrimps Science Scoliosis Scombroid Poisoning Scorpion Fish Scuba Air Quality Scuba Guru Scuba Injury Scuba Instructor Scuba children Scuba divers Scuba dive Scuba education Scuba health Scubalearners Scubalife Sea Horses Sea Turtles Sea slugs Seagrass Sealcolonies Sealife Seals Seasickness Seaweeds Seaweed Sea Self Rescue Shallow dives Shark Protection Shark Research Shark conservation Shark diving Sharks Shipwrecks Shit Happens Shore entries Shoulder strength Sidemount Sideplank Signs and Symptoms Silty bottoms Sit-ups Sixgill Sharks Skills in action Skin Bends Skin outbreak Skin rash Smart phone photography Snells Window Snorkeling Snorkels Social Distancing Sodwana Bay Solomon Islands Sonnier bank South Africa SpareAir Sperm Whales Spinal Bend Spinal bends Spinal cord DCS Spinal dura Spinal pain Spinner dolphins Splits Sports medicine Squeezes Squid Run Stability exercise Standars Statin Mediction Stay Fit Steel Stefan Randig Stents Step ups Stephen Frink Stepping up Stockton Rush Stonetown Stretch band exercise Stretch bands Strobe Lighting Strobes Stroke Submerge tech Submerged Sudafed Sulawesi Sun protection Sunscreen Supplemental oxygen Surface Marker Buoys Surface supplied Air Surfaced Surgeries Surgery Suspension training Swim Fitness Swimmers health SwimmingIn wateractivities Swimming Symbiosis Symbiosys TRavel safety Tabata protocol Talya Davidoff Tanzania Tattoes Tec Clark Tech diving Technical Diving Technical divng Temperature Homeostatis The Bends The Cavettes The Titanic Wreck The Wild Coast The greatest Shoal The truth Thermal Notions Thermoregulation Thomas Peschak Thunder Bay National Marine Sanctuary Tides Tips and trick Tonga Tooth squeeze Transplants Travel destinations Travel smarter Travel tips Travel Tropical Coastal Management Tunnelling Turks and Caicos Turtles Tweezers Ultrsound Umkomaas Unconscious diver Unconsciousness Underground work Underseaa world Underwaater Photos Underwater Photography Underwater Photograper Underwater Photograpgraphy Underwater Photographer Manirelife Underwater Research Underwater critters Underwater floral Gardens Underwater hockey Underwater imaging Underwater photographer Underwater photography Underwater pho Underwater sound Underwatercommunications Underwater University of Stellenbosch Unresponsive Urinary retention. VGE Vacations Vaccines Vagus nerve Valsalva manoeuvers Valve stem seals Vape Vaping Vasopressors Vasvagal Syncope Venous gas emboli Ventilate Venting Verna van Schak Videography Vincenzo Ferri. Virus infections Volatile fuels WWII wrecks War stories Washout treatments Wastewater Watchman device Water Resistance Water Weakness Weigang Xu Weights West Papua Western Cape Diving Wet Lenses Wet diving bell Wetsuit fitting Wetsuites Wetsuits White balance Whitetpped Sharks Wide Angle Photos Wide angles Wildlife park Wildlife Winter Wits Underwater Club Wolf Eels Woman and diving Woman in diving Womans health Woman Women In Diving SA Women and Diving Women in Freediving Women in diving Womens Month Womens health Work of Breathing Workout World Deeepst Dive Record World Records Wound dressings Wreck History Wreck divers Wreck dive Wreck diving Wreck exploration Wreckdiving Wrecks Yoga Youth diver Zandile Ndholvu Zanzibar Zoology Zooplankton \ Blennies abrasion absolute pressure acoustic neuroma excision adverse seas air-cushioned alert diver altitude alveolar walls anemia antibiotics anticoagulants antiseptics bandages barodontalgia bent-over barbell rows bioassays biodiversity bloodcells body art breathing air calories burn canal blockage carbon dioxide toxicity cardiovascular career developments cerebrospinal fluid cervical spine checklist chemo port children child chronic obstructive pulmonary disease clearances closed circuit scuba coral growth corrective lenses currents cuts cylinder filling dead lift decompression algorithms decongestants decongestion dehydration dive injuries dive medicing dive ready child dive reflex dive tribe divecomputers diver in distress diver rescue diver training dive diving attraction doctors domestic travel dri-suits drowning dry mucous membranes dry suits dry e-cigarettes ear spaces elearning electrolyte imbalance electroytes emergency action plans emergency assessment emergency training environmentally friendly equalising equalizing exposure injuries eyes fEMAL DIVERS fire rescue fish watching fitness Balance fitnes flexible tubing frediving freedivers gas bubble gas poisoning gastric acid gene expression health heartburn histidine hospital humidity hypobaric hypoxia immersion and bubble formation immersion pulmonary edema (IPE informal education isopropyl alcohol jaundice join DAN knee laparoscopic surgery life jackets longevity lower stress lox oxygen level malaise marielife marine pathogens medical issues medical procedures medical risk assesment medications mental challenge mental preparedness micro-organisims micro minor illness mucous membranes multilineage dysplasia myelodysplasia nasal steroids nasal near drowning nematocysts neurological newdivers nitrogen bubbles off-gassed operating theatre operations orthopeadic otitis media out planting outgas pain parameters perforation phillippines phrenic nerve physical challenges pinched nerves plasters pneumoperitoneum polyester-TPU polyether-TPU post dive posture prescription mask preserve prevention professional emergency responders proper equalization psychoactive pulmonary barotrauma. pulmonary injury. pulmunary barotrauma radiation rebreather mask rebreathers retinal detachment risk areas safety stops saturation scissors scuba equipment scuba sea goddesses single use sinus infections situationalawarenes smoking snorkeling. spearfishing sterilising stings strength sub-aquatic sunscreen lotion swimmers ears tattoo care tecnical diver thermal protection tissue damage toxicity training trimix unified standards upwelling virtual coach vision impaired vomiting warmers water quality zinc oxide