Sight Search

Sweet Dreams: When Can I Resume Diving Post Anaesthesia?

By Dr Cecilia Roberts

There is no definite data on how soon patients recover from the blunted sensorium that occurs with general anaesthesia. This is highly variable and influenced by numerous factors, including the type of premedication, the inhalation anaesthetic agent used, the length of the operation, the intra-operative medications administered and any post-operative recovery problems. In the elderly, long-term effects of general anaesthesia have been reported to decrease cognition for up to three months post-operatively.
The ability to dive depends on the diagnosis for which the anaesthetic was given and the disability from the surgical procedure will determine when you can resume diving. If one was put to sleep for some non-debilitating diagnosis (e.g. dental procedures) one should be able to resume diving after 24-48 hours. Longer periods of diving cessation may be recommended, depending on the procedure performed and the presence of complications.
The drugs used to induce general anaesthesia do not take long for your body to metabolise. It is recommended that at least 24 hours elapse after general anaesthesia before resuming daily activities. Diving should be safe after 48 hours, provided that the patient is not taking any sedatives. Entonox, often used in sedation for minor procedures, has a very short half-life and diving may be resumed after 12-24 hours. After local, spinal or epidural anaesthesia, recovery of full strength and normal sensation in the affected areas are vital.
The purpose of the assessment of fitness to return to diving after illness, surgery or injury is primarily to determine any factors which may affect in water safety.
Post-Operative Recovery
The most important hazard is the reduced exercise capacity dependent on the extent of the intervention and any post-operative conditions which could impair diving. Reduced physical fitness after surgery from inactivity and bedrest, pain, restricted function of organs, impairment of the motor system, and anaemia are several factors which play a role.
A diver may also put him/herself and his/her dive buddies at risk due to the impairment of his/her physical and psychological performance, owing to the medication being taken post-operatively. Medications which cause central nervous system depression can alter consciousness or hamper the diver’s decision-making ability.
Some systemic analgesics and narcotic pain relievers are contraindicated in diving. Their side effects include dizziness, drowsiness, impairment of mental performance and alterations in mood. These are dose-related and the lower the amount, the less frequent and severe the adverse reactions. Opiates can impair psychomotor performance and in high doses are known to cause respiratory depression which will be further potentiated by the narcotic effect of nitrogen as well as the increased work of breathing at depth due to increased gas density. Resultant carbon dioxide retention enhances the risk of oxygen toxicity. Nausea, a common side effect of medication, may further complicate matters. Paracetemol is considered a safe and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug and is relatively safe, as no medical contraindication for its use exists.
However, the major determinant is not the anaesthetic, but rather the reason for the anaesthetic. Diving is not a good idea immediately after surgery,irrespective of the anaesthetic.
When approaching the time to resume diving, one first has to consider the illness or condition being operated on and any relation of it to the diving environment. Any physical limitations as a result of the surgery, either short-term (like the rate that the wound heals and complications such as infection, wound disruption or temporary loss of function) or long-term disability (reducing the diver’s functional ability), should then be considered.
Thirdly, implants of any nature should be evaluated. Any air- or gas-filled implant poses a risk of exploding or rupturing, due to the effect of Boyle’s law. Metallic, silicone, composite and fluid-filled sacs do not contain any gas and are therefore not compressible and shouldn’t be a contraindication to diving. The following guidelines are used to advise on the return to diving for selected surgical interventions:
Ear, nose and throat surgeries
When undergoing septal deviation corrective surgery you should be able to return to diving three months after the successful surgery, provided there is no restricted nasal breathing and normal Eustachian tube function exists.
After surgical closure of a tympanic perforation (tympanoplasty), you may resume diving three months following the surgery, if the transplant has healed well and the Eustachian tube function is normal. Any extensive surgery on the middle ear and mastoid present a definite contraindication for diving due to the danger of tympanic rupture and prosthesis dislocation which will likely result in deafness. This includes hearing improving surgery.
Surgery of the lips, oral cavity, palate, or upper and lower jaw may cause insufficient hold and/or sealing of the regulator mouthpiece, which may predispose the diver to aspiration and panic. Therefore, candidates should perform a test dive and be able to hold and seal off the mouthpiece.
Respiratory surgeries
Pulmonary resection leads to differences in flow resistance and lung distensibility with the risk of lung barotrauma. After segmental resection or lobectomy, diving may be permitted three months post-operatively. Vital capacity should be 70-80% of the normal value with normal lung function testing results (FEV1/FEV; FVC at least 0.7). This decision must be made in consultation with a pulmonologist, preferably with diving medicine
experience. A pneumonectomy (excision of the lung or one or more lobes)
resection with a vital capacity less than 70% of the nominal value is an absolute contraindication to diving.
Special considerations on an individualised basis are taken in cases where barotrauma of the lungs (“burst lung”) has been surgically treated through pleurectomy (surgical excision of the lung pleura), but, in general, an incident of pulmonary barotrauma is a contraindication for further scuba diving and in most cases it is advised not to continue diving.
Pleurodesis (obliteration of the pleural cavity) ensures protection from a pneumothorax, but at the expense of an increasing risk of a cerebral arterial gas embolism (CAGE) and mediastinal emphysema.
Patients who have had a thoracotomy can be certified for diving after thorough evaluation by a thoracic surgeon knowledgeable of diving medicine. A post-operative wait of 12 weeks is advised, including studies to rule out air trapping.
Cardiovascular surgeries
Following any cardiac surgery with entry into the chest cavity, with no symptoms and a normal exercise test with normal haemodynamics and no rhythm disturbances, you may be cleared for diving three to six months postoperatively in consultation with the relevant specialist.
After surgery without entering the chest cavity, a six to eight week waiting period is advised or whenever the diver has physically rehabilitated to reach 13 metabolic equivalents (METs) on the treadmill. With peripheral revascularisation surgery, one can resume diving as soon as the wounds have healed and no symptoms are experienced.
 Long-term anti-coagulation therapy does not represent any specific danger to diving and is not a contraindication to diving, but can lead to dangerous haemorrhages and therefore poses an increased bleeding risk and possibly worse outcomes in cases of trauma, barotrauma of the ear, sinuses or lungs, and spinal decompression sickness (DCS).
Nervous system surgeries
After successful treatment of aneurysms of the cerebral vessels and clearance from the neurosurgeon, one may be permitted to dive.
Any craniotomy (surgical opening of the skull) that is not definitely closed is an
absolute contraindication to diving. Burr hole cases or any complete reconstruction of the cranial vault and ventriculo-peritoneal (VP)- or ventriculo-atrial (VA)-shunts should allow a period of six months and be free of any residual symptoms or epileptic fits.
Internal organ surgeries
People with stomas or indwelling urethral catheters are able to dive, provided they have received thorough counselling regarding hygiene problems and personal care.
After surgical correction of a hernia, six weeks (in simple cases) to three months should be allowed before returning to diving. The patient should also be warned about lifting heavy dive gear and the risk of recurrence of the hernia.
The post-operative wait after laparotomy depends greatly upon the cause for the surgery and the extent of the surgery involved. A post-operative period of six to 12 weeks is recommended, with approval by the surgeon.
With gynaecological procedures, as a rule, six weeks is needed followed by a follow-up and clearance by the specialist. Otherwise, diving can resume when the vaginal stump has healed.
In all cases, the diver should be self-sufficient with adequate exercise capacity and fitness following complete healing, complete rehabilitation, have normal swimming ability and be able to assist his/her buddy, if necessary.
Musculoskeletal surgeries
After conservative or surgical treatment of joint dislocations or instabilities and fractures, diving may be resumed following the complete healing with normal swimming ability and no restrictions of function. This usually suggests a period of six weeks to three months with clearance from the relevant surgeon.
Weight-bearing, exits and entries should be carefully considered before certifying the return to diving.
Eye surgeries
Particular caution should be exercised in cases following intraocular surgery, because negative pressure could lead to a dehiscence of the operation scar with grave consequences.
After cataract surgery, dehiscence of the corneoscleral scar may be a risk and therefore a post-operative period of three months should be allowed before returning to diving. A six-to-12-month period is suggested following penetrating keratoplasty and radial keratoplasty and three months are suggested for lamellar keratoplasty.
It is recommended that divers wait a minimum of one month before resuming diving after laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) refractive surgery.
Plastic surgery
A three-to-six-month waiting period is advised after breast augmentation surgery. Botulinum toxin injections, used for cosmetic purposes, can in some cases prevent adequate sealing of the mouthpiece.
In Summary
Whether or not a person who has had surgery should be certified as “fit to dive” should be decided on the merits of each case.
Returning to diving depends mainly on the type of surgery performed, whether the diver is symptomatic, the medication requirements, the restrictions placed on the patient by the surgical procedure and the length of time the diver is post-operatively free of problems. Most candidates can probably return to diving. Of greatest importance is the impact on safety. Apart from the general condition and physical fitness, the following should be taken into consideration: decision-making ability, the ability to self-rescue and rescue other divers as well as residual disabilities that would limit the diver’s ability to gear up and move in the water. Prospective divers should in all cases provide full disclosure to the dive instructor and certifying agency, bearing in mind the safety of their buddies, dive instructors, dive masters and other individuals who are also affected by diving incidents.
An evaluation should be done by the relevant medical specialist, preferably in consultation with a diving medicine practitioner, if he/she is not experienced in diving medicine.
A test dive is also recommended before planning a diving holiday when returning to diving after surgery or anaesthesia.
References & Suggested Reading
  • Wendling, J., Elliott, D.H., & Nome, T. Medical Assessment of Working Divers. 1stedition. 2004. Biel, Switzerland: Hyperbaric Editions.
  • Edmonds, C., Lowry, C., Pennefather, J. & Walker, R. eds. Diving and Subaquatic
  • Medicine. 4th edition. 2002. London.


immersion and bubble formation 2009 232bar 24Hours AGE AIDA Accident management Accidents Acid reflux Acute ailments Adam Sokolski Advanced courses Rescue diver Aerobic exercise After anaesthesia Aged divers Air Ambulance Air Quality Air consumption Air exchange centre Air hose failure Air supply Airway control Air Alert Diver December 2022 Alert Diver Magazine Alert Diver March 2023 Algorithms Alice Cattaneo Alice Modolo Alopecia Alternate Airsources use Alternater Air Source Alternative gas mix Altitude changes Altitude diving Altitude sickness Aluminium Oxide Ama divers Amino acids Amos Nachoum Anaerobic Metabolism Anilao Animal intelligence Animal life Annual renewal Antarctica Anxiety Apea Apex predators Apnea addicts Apnea Apnoea Aqua corps Aquatic creatures Aquatic life Aquatics and Scuba Diving Archaeology Argonaut octopus Argonauts Argon Arrythmia Arterial Gas Embolisms Arterial gas embolism Arthroscopic surgery Aspirin Audible signals Aurel hygiene Australian Flat backed Australia Aviation o2 BCD BHP BLS BOSS400 BWARF Baacterial infections Back adjustment Back pain Back treatment Backextensors Backmount CCR Badages Bag valve mask Bags Bahamas Bail out cylinder Balancing Bandaids Barbell back squat Barometric pressure Barotrauma Barry Skinstad Basic Life Support Basslets Batteries Beach entry Beached coral Becky Kaga Schott Becky Kagan Schott Beluga whales Bench press Bends Benign prostate hyperplasia Benzophenones Beth Neale Beyond Standards Big Sur Bilikiki Tours Biophysics Black Water Photography Black Blood flow Blood pressure Blood thinners Blue Desert Blue Wilderness Blue economy Blue heron Bridge Bluff Blurred vision Boat diving Boat etiquette Boat safety Boats Bobbit worm Boesmans gat Boesmansgat Bonaire Bone fractures Bouyancy compensators Bouyancy control device Bouyancy controls Boyle's Law Boyle\'s Law Bradycardia Brain Brandon Cole Breast Cancer Breath Hold Diving Breath hold diver Breath holding Breath hold Breath-hold Breathing Gas Breathing gas contamination Breathing oxygen Breathing Breathold diving Bright Bank Broken bones Bruising Bubble detection Bubbleformation Buddy Exercise Buddy checks Buoyancy Burn wounds Burnshield Burns Business B CCR CE markings CGASA CMAS CNS CO2 COVID-19 Updates COVID-19 COVID CPR CSI Cabin pressure Caissons diseas California Camera equipment Camera settings Cameras Cancer Remission Cancer treatments Cancer Cannabis and diving Cannabis Cape Diver Research Cape Nudibranchs Cape Town Dive Festival Cape Town Dive Sites Cape Town CapeTown Carbon Monoxide Carbon dioxide Cardiac Health Cardiac research Cardiaccompromise Cardio health Cardiological Cardiomyopathy Caribbean Carmel Bay Carribean Conservation Catalina Island Cave Cave diving Cave divers Cave diving Cave exploration Caves Cave Cenotes Ceotes Challenging Environments Chamber Locations Chamber Safety Chamber maintenance Chamber medical staff Chamber science Chamber treatment Chamber Charging batteries Charles' Law Charles\' Law Charles\\\' Law Charles\\\\\\\' Law Charles\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\' Law Charlie Warland Chemotherapy Chest compressions Children diving Chiropractic Chlorophll Chokka Run Christina Mittermeier Chuck Davis Chuuk lagoon Citizen Conservation Citizen sciences Citizen science Clean Air Cleaning products Cleeve Robertson Climate change Closed Circuit Rebreathers Closed Circuit Rebreather Clothing Cmmunity partnership Coastal diving Coastalexcursion Cold Water Cold care Cold sores ColdWater Cold Commercial Fishing Commercial diving Commercial operations Commercial schools Common consideration Common understanding Communication Compact Cameras Composition Compressed Air Compressed gas Compressor operators Compressors Concussion Congestive heart Faiture Consercation Conservation Photographer Conservation photography Conservation Contact lenses Contaminants Contaminated air Coping with cold Coral Bleaching event Coral Conservation Coral Reefs Coral Restoration Coral bleaching Coral preservation CoralGroupers Corals Core strength Corona virus Coro Coservation Costamed Chamber Courtactions Cozumel Cradiac valvular Crime scene Cristina Mittermeier Crocodile Crohns disease Crowns Crystal build up Crystallizing hoses Cubs Cutaneous decompression Cutting tools Cylinder Ruptures Cylinder capacity Cylinder handwheel Cylinder safety Cylinder valves Cylinder weight Cylinders DAN Courses DAN Europe DAN Profile DAN Researchers DAN hotline service DAN insure DAN medics DAN members DAN report DANTraining DCI DCS Decompressions sickness DCS theories DCS DEMP DM training DNA DPV DReams DSMB Daan verhoeven Dahab Dalton's Law Dalton\'s Law Dalton\\\'s Law Dalton\\\\\\\'s Law Dalton\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\'s Law Danel Wenzel Dangerous Marinelife Dauin island Dave McCowan David Doubilet Dean's Blue Hole Dean\'s Blue Hole Deco dives Decompression Illness Decompression Sickness Decompression Stress Decompression benenfits Decompression chamber Decompression illsnes Decompression ilness Decompression limits Decompression treatment Decompression Decomression sickness Decorator crabs Deep Freediving Deep diving Deep water exploration Deepest SCUBA Dive Delayed Offgassing Dennis Guichard Dental Depth limits Dever Health Diadema Response Team Diagnosis Diaphragms Diets Diopter Dirty water Discomfort Diseases Disinfectants Disinfection Disorientation Distraction Dive Accident Dive Action Dive Buddy Dive Centre Dive Chamber Dive Chmber Dive Computer Dive Destinations Dive Destination Dive Fitness # fit to dive @Dive health Dive H Dive Industry Dive Instruction Dive Instructor Dive Lights Dive Masters Dive Medical Form Dive Medical Dive Practices Dive Professionals Dive Pros Dive Rescue Dive Research Dive Safari Dive Safety Tips Dive South Africa Dive Taiwan Dive Training Dive Travel Wakatobi Dive Travel Dive accidents Dive bell Dive buddies Dive caves Dive centre rules Dive communications Dive computers Dive courses Dive cover Dive cylinder Aluminium Dive equipment Dive excursions Dive exercise Dive exeriences Dive experience Dive fitness Dive gear Dive heallth Dive health Dive in Africa Dive insurance Dive leaders Dive masks Dive medical insurance Dive medicals Dive medicines Dive medicine Dive operators Dive opportunities Dive planning Dive point Dive procedures Dive safety 101 Dive safety briefing Dive safety Dive safe Dive skills Dive staff Dive teams Dive travels DiveLIVE DiveTravel Diveleader training Diveleaders Divelights Diver Ethisc Diver Food Diver Health Diver Profile Diver Travel Diver education Diver infliencers Diver on surface Diver recall Diverover 50 Divers Alert Diversafety Divers Divesites Diving Divas Diving Equipment Diving Family Diving Fatalities Diving Feet Diving Helmets Diving Kids Diving Programs Diving Trauma Diving career Diving emergencies Diving emergency management Diving etiquette Diving fit Diving guidelines Diving history Diving injuries Diving science Diving suspended Diving Dizziness Dizzyness Documentary photography Dolphins Domestic Donating Blood Donation Doug Perrine Dowels Dr Rob Schneider Drift diving Drysuit diving Drysuit valves Drysuits Dur4ban Undersea club Durban Dynamic environment Dyperbaric medicines EAPs EAP EKG EMS EN standards Ear barotrauma Ear pressure Ear wax Ears injuries Eat fish Eco friendly Ecowise Education Electronic Elizabeth Bockheim Embolisms Emergency Action Plan Emergency Planning Emergency action planning Emergency contact Emergency decompression Emergency plans Emergency treatments Emergency underwater Oxygen Recompression Emergency Endurance Entry Envenomations Enviromental Protection Environmental factors Environmental impact Environmental managment Environmental stewardship Equalisation Equalise Equalization Equipment care Equipment failure Equipment hygiene Equipment inspection Equipment significance Evacuations Evacuation Evaluations Even Breath Evironmetaly friendly Exercise Exercising Exhaustion Exploration dives Exposure Protection Extended divetime Extinction Extinguisher Extreme treatments Eye injuries Eye protection FAQ Face computer Factor V Leiden Failures FalseBay Diving Fatigue Faulty equipment Feet Femal diver Female divers Fenivir Fetus development Field practice Filling stations Fillings Fin Foot Fins Fire Coral Fire Safety Fire extinguisher Firefighting Fires First Aid Equipment First Aid Kit First Aid Trainig First Aid Training First Aid kits First Aid Fish Identification Fish Life Fishing Fish Fit to dive Fitness Levels Fitness Training Fitness evaluation Fitness to dive Fitnesstrainng Fitness Flying Focus lights Food Footissues Foundations Fractures Francesca Diaco Francois Burman Fred Buyle Fredive Free Student cover Free diving Free flow Freedive Competition Rules Freedive Competiton Freedive INstructor Freedive Safety Freedive Training Freedive competition Freedive computer Freedive modes Freedive rescue procedures Freediver Staff Instructor Freediver Freedive Freediving Instructors Freediving performance Freediving Fun Divers Zanzibar Fur rade Galapagos Gar Waterman Gardens of The Queen Gas Density Gas Planning Gas consumption Gas emboli Gas laws Gas management Gas mixes GasPerformance Gasblends Gases Gass bubbles Gastoeusophagus Gastric bypass Gastroenterologist Gas Gear Servicing Georgina Jones Germs Geyer Bank Giant Kelp Forest Giant Kelp Giant stride Girls that Scba Gobies Golden fish Gordon Hiles Great White Sharks Green sea turtle Green turles Greenlings Guidebook Guinness World Record Gutt irritations HBOT HBO HCV HELP HIRA HMLI HMS Britanica Haemorhoid treatment Hand signals Harry Chammas Havanna Hawaii Hawksbill Hazard Description Hazardous Marine life Hazardous marinelife Head injuries Headaches Health practitioner Healthy Food Heart Attack Heart Health Heart Rate monitor Heart fitness Heart rates Heart rate Heart Heat loss Heat stress Helen Walne Heliox Helium Gas Helium Hematoma Hemodynamic Hepatitis C Hepatitus B Hiatal Hernia High Pressure vessels High pressure hoses High temperatures Hilmar Luckhoff Hip strength Hip surgery Hippocampus History Hole in the heart Hood Hot Human diver Humans Hydrate Hydration Hydrogen Hydroids Hydrostatic pressure Hygiene Hyperbaric Chamber Hyperbaric Oxygen Treatments Hyperbaric Oxygen Hyperbaric research Hyperbaric treatment Hyperbarics Hypertension Hypothermia Hypoxia I-52 found INclusivity IdentiFin Imaging Immersion Immine systems In Water Recompression Increased pressure Indemnity form Indian Ocean Indigo SCuba Indonesia Inert gas Infections Infra red Imaging Inhaca Ocean Alliance Injections Inner ear Instinct Instruction Instructors Insulation Insurance policy Insurance Integrated Physiology International travel International Internship programs Internship Interval training Investigations Irritation Irukandji Syndrome Islamorada Isotta housing Italy Itchy Rash Its OK Jellyfish Jennifer Hayes Jill Heinerth Joanna Wyrebek John Vowles Joint pain Joshua Journal for Technical Diving Junior Open Water Diver KZN South Coast KZN Karen van den Oever Kate Jonker KateJonker Kelp Forest Kelp forests KelpForests Ken Finlay Kenya Kidneys Kids scubadiver Komati Springs KwaZulu Natal Kwazulu-Natal LED lights LED Labour laws Lake Huron Lara Lambiase Laryngospasm Lauren Arthur Leanne Walmsley Learning to dive Leatherbacks Leatherback Legal Network Legal advice Legislation Lembeh Straights Lenses Leslie Lwaney Leukemis Liability Insurance Liability Risks Liability releases Liability Life expectancy Lifestyle Lighting equipment Lighting Lightroom editing Lights Lionfish Live aboard diving Liveaboard Liver Toxicity Liver diseas Liz Louw Llandudno Loss of consciousness Lost at sea Lost divers Low Visability Low blood platelets Low blood pressure Low pressure deterioration Low volume masks Lumpsuckers Lung Irritation Lung flexibility Lung function Lung injuries Lung over expansion Lung squeeze Lung surgery Lung MOD MOzambique diving MPA Macro photography Mafia Island Maintenance Malaria Mammalian Dive Response Mammalian effect Manatees Mandarin Fish Marfan syndrome Marine Biologist Marine Biology Marine Mega fauna Marine Science Marine Scientists Marine conservation Marine parks Marine plants Marinelife Marinescience Mark Barker Markus Dirschi Marlin Marne protecte areas Mask clearing Masks Mask Master scuba diver Matty Smith Maximum operating depth Medical FAQ Medical Q Medical emergencies Medical forms Medical oxygen Medical questionaire Medical statement Medical team Medicalquestionaires Medicalresearch Medicalstudents Medication Mehgan Heaney-Grier Membership benefits Menopause Menstruation Mental health Mermaid Danii Mesophotic Metotrexate Mexico Michael Aw Micro Photography Microbubbles Middle ear pressure Mike Bartick Military front press Military Misool Resort Raja Ampat Mixed Gas Mnemba Ataol Mono Fins Mooring lines More pressure Motion sickness Motionsickness Mount Kilimanjaro Mozambique Muck Diving Muscle pain Mycobacterium marinum NDL limits NSRI Narcosis National Geographic Nature Nausea Nauticam Ambassadors Nauticam Ambassador Nautilus Navigation Ndibranchs Neck pain Neoprene layers Neuro assessments Neurocognitive research Neurological assessments Neuromotor exercises New Caledonia Nichola Bird Nicorette Nicotine Nitrogen Narcosis Nitrogen build up Nitrox No Decompression Limits No-decompression limits No-decompression Non-nano zinc oxide Non-rebreather Mask Non-smoking Nondiving related illness Nonrebreather masks Normal Air North Sulawesi Northern Taiwan Nosebleeds Nudibranchs Nuno Gomes Nutrition O2 enriched O2 oxygen provider. O2 providers O2 servicing O2 treatments O2treatments OOxygen maintenance Ocean Alliance Ocean Projects Ocean Research Ocean animals Ocean clean up Ocean community Ocean conservation Ocean life Ocean mammals Ocean migrations Ocean pollution Oceangate Ocean Octopus Oil contamination Olive Ridley Open Ocean Open water divers Operatorethics Optical focus Oral contraseptives Orbital implants Oronasal mask Osteonecrosis Otters Out and about Out of air Outer ears Outreach Overhead Envirenments Oxygen Administration Oxygen Cylinder Oxygen Toxicity Oxygen Units Oxygen deficit Oxygen deicit Oxygen dificiency Oxygen ears Oxygen equipment Oxygen explosions Oxygen kit Oxygen masks Oxygen providers Oxygen safety Oxygen supplies Oxygen supply Oxygen systems Oxygen therapy Oxygen treatment Oxygen P J Prinsloo PADI Freedivers PFI PFOs PFO PJP Tech PTSD Paper Nautilus Paralysis Parentalsupervision Part 3 Partner Training Patent foramen ovale PatentForamen Ovale Pemba Island Peri-peri Divers Personal Perspective Petar Denoble Peter Lindholm Philippine Islands Philippines Phillipines Photographers Photographer Photography tips Photography Physical Fitness Physioball Physiology Physiotherapy Pills Pilot Whale Pistons Planning Plastic pollution Plastic Plimsoll Interface Pneumonia Pneumothorax Poison Pole fishing Polka Dot Bat fish Pollution Pool Diving Pool chemicals Pool maintenance Pool workout Pools Post traumatic Post-dive Potuguese man-of-war Pre-dive fitness Pre-dive Predive check Pregnancy Pregnant divers Preparation Prepared diver Press Release Preventions ProDive Port Elizabeth Product scuba nudi Professional rights Protection Provider course Psycological Pulmanologist Pulmonary Barotrauma Pulmonary Bleb Pulmonary Edema Pulmonary Hypertension Pulse Punture wounds Pure Air Pure Apnea Purge Quit Smoking Q RAID South Africa RCAP REEF RMV ROS Radio communications Range of motion Rashes Reactive oxygen species Rebreather diving Rebreatherdive Recces Rechargeable batteries. Rechargeable Recompression chamber Recompression treatment Recompression Recreational dives Recycle Red SEA Reef Chcek Reef Conservation Reef Environmental Education Foundation Reef protection Reef safe Reef surveyors Refractive correction Regal Sea Goddesses Regulator failure Regulators Regulator Remote areas Remote dive locations Remote islands Renewable Rental gear Report incidents Rescue Divers Rescue Procedure Rescue breathing Rescue breaths Rescue diver Rescue skills Rescue skill Rescue training Rescue Researcher profile Research Respitory Minute Volume Resume diving Return To Diving Return to diving Reuseable items Review Rhinopias Risk Assessments Risk assesments Risk assessment Risk elements Risk management Risk mitigation Risks of Seizures River diving Riviera Maya Roatan Marine Park Roatan Ronblom Rubber ducks SABS 019 SAC SMB SRC SafariLive Safe diving practices Safety Concerns Safety Divers Safety Gear Safety Stop Safety in Air Safety SaherSafe Barrier Salisbury Island Salish Seas Salty Wanderer Sanitising Sanne Volja Sara Andreotti Sara Banderby Sara Campbell Sardine Run Sargassum sea Saturation Diving Saturation diver Save our seas Schrimps Science of diving Science Scoliosis Scombroid Poisoning Scorpion Fish Scuba Air Quality Scuba Guru Scuba Injury Scuba Instructor Scuba children Scuba divers Scuba dive Scuba diving Scuba education Scuba gear Scuba health Scubalearners Scubalife Sea Horses Sea Turtles Sea rescue Sea slugs Seagrass Sealcolonies Sealife Seals Seasickness Seaweeds Seaweed Sea Self Rescue Send Nudi Shallow Water Blackout Shallow dives Shark Protection Shark Research Shark conservation Shark diving Shark specialist Sharks Shipwrecks Shit Happens Shore entries Shoulder strength Sidemount Sideplank Signalling devices Signs and Symptoms Silty bottoms Sit-ups Sixgill Sharks Skills in action Skin Bends Skin outbreak Skin rash Smart phone photography Snells Window Snorkeling Snorkels Social Distancing Sodwana Bay Solomon Islands Sonnier bank South Africa Southern Sea Otters SpareAir Special Operations Special forces units Sperm Whales Spinal Bend Spinal bends Spinal cord DCS Spinal dura Spinal pain Spinner dolphins Spleen Splits Sports medicine Squeezes Squid Run Stability exercise Stage cylinder Standars Static breath hold Statin Mediction Stay Fit Stay Warm Steel Stefan Randig Stents Step ups Stephen Frink Stepping up Stobes Stockton Rush Stonetown Stretch band exercise Stretch bands Stretching Strobe Lighting Strobes Stroke Submerge tech Submerged Sudafed Sulawesi Sun protection Sun screen Sunscreen Supplemental oxygen Surface Air Consumption Surface Consumption Rate Surface Marker Buoys Surface supplied Air Surfaced Surfers Surgeries Surgery Survivor Suspension training Swim Fitness Swimmers health SwimmingIn wateractivities Swimming Sylvia Earl Symbiosis Symbiosys TRavel safety Tabata protocol Talya Davidoff Tank valve Tanzania Tara Panton Tattoes Tchnical diving Team Awareness Tec Clark Tec divers Tec diving Tech diving Technical Diving Technical diver Technical divng Temperature Homeostatis The Bends The Cavettes The Produce The Titanic Wreck The Wild Coast The greatest Shoal The silent world The truth Thermal Notions Thermoregulation Thomas Peschak Thresher shark Thunder Bay National Marine Sanctuary Tides Tips and trick Tonga Tooth squeeze Transplants Trashbag Trauma Travel Safe Travel destinations Travel smarter Travel tips Travel Tropical Coastal Management Tulamben Tullum Tulum. Tumbatu Island Tuna Tunnelling Turks and Caicos Turtles Tweezers Ultrsound Umkomaas Unconscious ascent Unconscious diver Unconsciousness Underground waterways Underground work Underseaa world Underwaater Photos Underwater Photography Underwater Photograper Underwater Photograpgraphy Underwater Photographer Manirelife Underwater Photographers Underwater Research Underwater camera Underwater critters Underwater floral Gardens Underwater hockey Underwater imaging Underwater lights Underwater models Underwater photographer Underwater photography Underwater photos Underwater pho Underwater sound Underwatercommunications Underwater Underwtaer photography University of Stellenbosch Unresponsive Urchins Urinary retention. VGE Vacations Vaccines Vagus nerve Valsalva manoeuvers Valve stem seals Vape Vaping Vasopressors Vasvagal Syncope Venous gas emboli Ventilate Venting Verna van Schak Veterinarian Videography Vincenzo Ferri. Virus infections Volatile fuels WWII wrecks War stories Wash gear Washout treatments Wastewater Watchman device Water Resistance Water Weakness Weck Weigang Xu Weightloss Weights West Papua Western Cape Diving Wet Lenses Wet diving bell Wetsuit fitting Wetsuites Wetsuits Wetsuit White balance Whitetpped Sharks Wide Angle Photos Wide angles Wildlife park Wildlife Winter Wits Underwater Club Wolf Eels Woman and diving Woman in diving Woman's Health Womans health Woman Women In Diving SA Women and Diving Women in Freediving Women in diving Womens Month Womens health Work of Breathing Workout World Deeepst Dive Record World Records Wound dressings Wreck History Wreck divers Wreck dive Wreck diving Wreck exploration Wreckdiving Wrecks Wrist technology Yachts Yoga Youth diver Zandile Ndholvu Zanzibar Zoology Zooplankton \ Blennies abrasion absolute pressure acoustic neuroma excision adverse seas air-cushioned alert diver altitude alveolar walls anemia antibiotics anticoagulants antiseptics ascent bandages barodontalgia bent-over barbell rows bioassays biodiversity bloodcells blue carbon body art breathing air calories burn canal blockage cannabis oil carbon dioxide toxicity cardiovascular career developments cerebrospinal fluid cervical spine checklist chemo port children child chronic obstructive pulmonary disease clearances closed circuit scuba compressed gass coral growth corrective lenses crystalweed currents cuts cylinder filling daggaolie dagga dead lift decompression algorithms decongestants decongestion deep dive training dehydration discovery dive clubs dive injuries dive medicing dive ready child dive reflex dive tribe divecomputers diver in distress diver rescue diver training dive diving attraction diving hoods doctors dolphns domestic travel dri-suits drowning dry mucous membranes dry suits dry e-cigarettes ear spaces earplugs ears elearning electrocardiogram electrolyte imbalance electroytes emergency action plans emergency assessment emergency training environmentally friendly equalising equalizing exposure injuries eyes fEMAL DIVERS fire rescue fish watching fitness Balance fitnes flexible tubing frediving freedivers gas bubble gas poisoning gastric acid gene expression health heartburn heron bridge histidine hospital humidity hypobaric hypoxia immersion and bubble formation immersion pulmonary edema (IPE informal education isopropyl alcohol jaundice join DAN knee lanyard laparoscopic surgery life jackets longevity lower stress lox oxygen level lungs malaise mamalian effect marielife marine pathogens medical Questions medical issues medical procedures medical risk assesment medications mental challenge mental preparedness micro-organisims micro minor illness mucous membranes multilineage dysplasia myelodysplasia nasal steroids nasal near drowning nematocysts neurological newdivers nitrogen bubbles no tanx off-gassed operating theatre operations orthopeadic otitis media out planting outgas pain parameters perforation phillippines phrenic nerve physical challenges pinched nerves plasters pneumoperitoneum polyester-TPU polyether-TPU post dive posture prescription mask preserve prevention professional emergency responders proper equalization psychoactive pulmonary barotrauma. pulmonary injury. pulmunary barotrauma pure oxygen radiation rebreather mask rebreathers retinal detachment risk areas safety stops saturation scissors scuba equipment scuba sea goddesses single use sinus infections situationalawarenes smoking snorkeling. spearfishing spliff sterilising stings strength sub-aquatic sunscreen lotion swimmer's ear swimmer\'s ear swimmers ears tattoo care tecnical diver thermal protection tissue damage toxicity trachea training travel Insurance trimix tympanic membrane unified standards upcycled upwelling virtual coach vision impaired vomiting warmers water quality zinc oxide