Sight Search

The Nature of Liability & Diving

In this Blog, we take a look at the foundational legal principles in relation to scuba diving on which any civil claim would be adjudicated: inherent risk, negligence and duty to take care.
The recent creation of a legal network for DAN members continues to generate interest and discussion. Many divers and diving businesses have already told us that they are delighted to be able to forward us the really tough questions they never knew who to ask before.

Still, some keep asking us to explain what the actual purpose of DAN Legal Net is. To understand this answer, we must start from the perspective of DAN itself and its role in the diving industry. DAN fulfils a very unique and multi-faceted function in the community it serves: it raises awareness of both the pleasure and the potential hazards of diving, it serves individual divers and diving businesses, and it addresses the needs of the injured as well as those with a duty to serve them. However, DAN is not a statutory or enforcing agency. Therefore, the primary objective of DAN is offering the most accurate, constructive and relevant advice and assistance, irrespective of the circumstances, within the mandate of its mission. Sometimes the assistance may take on the form of transport to a recompression facility. At other times, it might be providing advice on how to best manage the consequences of a diving accident. As such, the goal of DAN’s Legal Net is to provide precautionary and preparatory information on how to stay out of trouble, as a diver and as a diving business, so as to establish a wholesome culture of safety consciousness and shared responsibility, and to provide information on what to do if things do go wrong, so as to encourage fairness and honesty. In summary, the objective of DAN Legal Net is to provide assistance and information of a legal nature in matters related to diving and hence to try to reduce the unnecessary anguish or anxiety that often follows legal issues. The rest is up to the respective parties involved.

DAN Legal Net is intended as a complimentary advisory service to DAN members, whether they are recreational, professional or even business members, to provide the initial guidance or advice as to whether the member is in need of appointed legal counsel. If the DAN legal team advises you to get legal counsel, they will also be able to provide some recommendations (referrals) should you need this.
Who carries the can?
As we pointed out in the spring 2013 edition of the Alert Diver, even being a dive buddy has potential legal implications. So, to bump this up a notch, what about the diver training organisations themselves? Where do they stand? How do they relate to South African law? Are they all considered the same under our legal system in spite of the differences in organisational structures and training programmes? How does this affect their respective instructors and trainee divers from a legal perspective? These are not exactly simple questions.

It is certainly true that the respective training organisations differ in a number of ways. However, this does not imply that there are necessarily differential legal implications for each of them. In fact, under South African law, the legal principles are common in all matters. Therefore, if you suffer a loss and you (or your estate in the case of a fatality) wish to recover damages, the legal principles would be applied commonly; whether you are driving or diving.

Although not a frequent occurrence, there have been quite a number of law suits associated with diving injuries and damages in South Africa. This is not surprising, as the occurrence of law suits is really a function of “numbers”. As training increases, so do the chances of injuries and, with it, the chances of legal recourse.

So, it remains wise to insure yourself, your equipment or your business in a proper and effective way. But before getting back to the potential differences amongst the training agencies, let’s first explore the foundational legal principles on which any civil claim would be adjudicated: inherent risk, negligence and duty to take care.

Inherent dangers & assumption of risk 

As an adventure sport, scuba diving is remarkably safe. Given all the possibilities for injury, it is truly amazing how few injuries and fatalities actually occur. However, the lull of statistics fades when your own life or business is at stake. Then the odds suddenly jump to 100%. So, what can and should you do to mitigate or manage the inherent risks?

For starters, make sure your life insurance and other long-term insurance do not exclude scuba diving. Other than the injury or accident itself, there is nothing worse than finding out that the life or disability insurance you were counting on excludes coverage for diving. That is not the time to discover the deficiencies in your coverage. Consult your policy or broker about this and, if necessary, complete the documentation necessary to include the type of scuba diving you do in your policy. Sometimes insurance policies are devised without any knowledge of scuba diving. As a result, the policy language and terms may impose contradictory or completely impractical restrictions on diving. Don’t assume, ask! Make sure all your equipment is serviced and up to date. This is especially important if your equipment is used by others, as it would be for a diving business. The same is true for boats, compressors and all other components associated with diving, such as:
  • Practice (training)
  • Preserve (servicing and licensing)
  • Protect (insurance)
Another important perspective to have on recreational diving is that it is just that: recreation! So, in terms of civil liability, it means that the participant is taking on a voluntary, purposeful risk.

To illustrate this, let us use a more extreme example, namely rugby. Part of rugby involves being tackled by your opponent. Although there are rules and restrictions on how this may be done within the context of the game, the reality is still that when two 100 kg objects collide, injuries will happen sooner or later. Yet rugby players would not consider suing the player who tackled them, the coach who trained them for the match or the opponent’s coach who instructed the opponent on how to bring them down. It is part of the voluntary nature of participating in the sport.

Think about cricket: Brick-hard balls hurtling towards you at 130 km/h will bring risks. An even more extreme example is boxing or wrestling, in which you allow yourself wilfully to be hammered or thrown to the ground! These are all voluntary. Of course, there are boundaries in terms of the rules of the sport, but rules do not negate the potential effects of fists or gravity.

As a result, a purely mechanical application of the fundamental “delictual” principles would lead to absurd results. Basically “delictual” principles are those principles that are talked about at nauseam in courts of law. To have a successful claim in court, these are the things your lawyer or advocate needs to prove to the magistrate or judge. The point is this: When a voluntary risk leads to an involuntary injury (by means of an accident, incident, mishap or mistake) there must be evidence of someone either doing what they shouldn’t have (i.e. negligence) or not doing what they should have (i.e. dereliction of duty to take care) before there can be a successful claim. So, this is where things get interesting and more complicated.

Before we get to these two components, let’s quickly deal with a possible objection forming in your mind. Some of you may be asking: “Okay, so what? I am not a lawyer. So, if I need legal advice or legal services, I will find a lawyer just like I would find a doctor to deal with the injury!” That is true; however, the problem is this: by the time you need a lawyer, the damage is already done, the accident or incident has already happened and you are either hurt or being blamed. Now your legal team has to do “damage control”. By way of analogy: Rather than dressing warmly when you should have, you now go looking for a remedy for your runny nose. Remember the old saying? Ignorance of the law is no excuse. And that is exactly why DAN is publishing articles such as these; to assist you, the diver, in preventing the problem rather than having to deal with the consequences that could have been avoided.

So, let’s get back to the earlier “involuntary injury” due to a mishap or mistake. For a mishap or a mistake to result in legal consequences, there needs to be either negligence or dereliction or non-compliance with a duty to take care.


This is the “do” component in the legal equation. In other words, this is when one person causes an injury or damage to another person or their property and the damage is linked directly to that person. If this happens, the person responsible is potentially liable. To break this down a little more: If you can reasonably foresee that your actions could harm your dive buddy, and yet continue with those actions and you do not desist (stop), and your dive buddy is eventually injured or suffers damages, then he/she can hold you liable for compensation.

So, for example, divers are taught not to leave a diving cylinder standing upright. This is a universal rule no matter who trained you. If you mistakenly (i.e. negligently) leave your cylinder upright and the cylinder accidentally topples over and crushes my expensive dive computer, I can hold you liable for the damage and the costs of fixing or replacing it. However, if I was the one who bumped your cylinder over, you would not be liable because there is no direct link between you and the damage the cylinder caused (I bumped your cylinder over). As another example: if I drop my weight belt on your foot and your foot is injured and in need of extensive surgical repair, you can insist on me compensating you for the medical costs. No rocket science there. The same applies in traffic: If you don’t stop at an intersection controlled by a stop sign and accidentally ram my 4 x 4 (though a cheap one, it takes me to those same remote diving spots yours does), you are going to have to pay for it to be fixed.
Dereliction of duty to take care  

This is the “not do” component. It is also somewhat harder to define. After all, who determines the duty to care and the non-compliance thereto in unique emergency situations? Still, this component is more likely to lead to a recovery of damages. Put differently, when you are under a legal duty to take reasonable care and you do not do it, then you could be held liable for damages that are directly caused by the breach of that duty. The key elements are “reasonable care” and “directly caused”.

Let’s break that down, starting with directly caused. This means that the damages are linked directly to the failure to perform the reasonable duty. This is called a causal connection. In other words, there must be a connection between the duty not complied with and the damages.
Reasonable care is explained as follows: A standard of care that is considered reasonably required in a given situation. In other words, reasonable care is that which is reasonable to expect, given the prevailing circumstances, the diving conditions, your diving experience, your training, your diving qualifications, etc. So, in layman’s terms, the law imposes a duty of care upon those individuals who are presumed to possess “common sense” to perceive the potential dangers inherent in a particular set of circumstances and in a given situation and exercise the same degree of caution as any other individual (a reasonable qualified diver) would. The standard is not one of perfection and it makes allowance for mistakes and errors in judgement. However, the reasonable diver is cautious by nature and, even though they may take calculated risks, they are also more alert to what they are than a non-diver would be. Therefore, in determining a standard of care, our courts take an objective approach,
including the person’s specific knowledge or experience (or lack thereof). However, this cannot be used as an excuse for failure to meet a standard. For example, if an untrained individual were to represent him/herself as a scuba diving instructor (i.e. as having the necessary skills and training to teach scuba diving) and an incident were to occur in which the individual is required to respond, this person would be held to the standard of care expected from an average-skilled instructor in that area, even though he/she was not qualified as such. In other words, he/she will be expected to “measure up” to the standard of the level of practitioner he/she professed him/herself to be whether or not he/she actually possessed the necessary skills.
To apply this to the buddy system, consider the following: You are accountable towards your buddy for his/her safety. All diver training organisations teach this, so there would be no basis on which to claim that there is no reasonable duty to take care of a buddy in trouble.

Using this line of logic, some individuals have even gone as far as to say that they prefer solo scuba diving as this releases them from the legal implications or risks associated with buddy diving. Although one might argue this on the basis of experience and sophistication of safety equipment in the case of an expert solo diver who is largely self-sufficient, there remains a possibility of unforeseen loss of consciousness from which a solo diver is unlikely to recover. As they say in the Alps: “The avalanche doesn’t know you are an expert.” Conversely, one might argue that certain types of extreme and deep diving are so hazardous that it may well be better to only jeopardise the life of one individual rather than two. That is, of course, as long as no one is put at risk during the subsequent body recovery or rescue efforts! Well, as a qualified instructor and dive leader, I shall continue to teach and advocate the buddy system. I do not like the idea of diving alone anyway. I prefer to share the joys of diving with someone able to share the memories of the dive. To me, diving is, and remains, a team sport. Which introduces another consideration: How would the principle of duty to take care be applied to children who dive? Training agencies impose age and depth restrictions on children who enter the sport before the age of 14. Depending on the age and diving course, a child may be required to dive with an instructor or at least another adult dive buddy. If the adult were to get into trouble, the child would not be expected to meet the duty of care of another adult. He/she would be held to an age appropriate standard.

What about all those waivers? As mentioned in the previous article, waivers define the boundaries of the self-imposed risk divers are willing to take by requiring that they acknowledge them. Waivers do not remove all the potential claims for negligence and non-compliance with a duty of care. As such, it is left to our courts to ultimately interpret the content of a waiver within the actual context of damage or injury.


So, is there a difference between the respective diver training organisations from a legal perspective? In a nutshell, it is my opinion that each diver training organisation would be judged according to well-established prevailing legal principles. All diver training organisations are very well established and their training procedures are well documented and substantiated. As such, it would be improbable that one diver training organisation would be judged on issues of negligence or duty to take care using the standards, policies or procedures of another organisation. The rules of an organisation would be measured against those prevailing legal principles discussed above. However, there may be differences in the chain of liability between instructors and the organisation, depending on the nature of the relationship. These would simply be measured against delictual principles to measure their compliance therewith. For instance, some organisations have assistant instructors who work under the responsibility of an instructor or instructors may serve under the responsibility of an instructor-trainer. These may add additional dimensions of liability in a legal case. However, and perhaps most importantly, in terms of the core principles of diving safety and training, there is actually relatively little difference between the diver training organisations. Most qualified divers achieve very similar communication, diving and emergency training. There is also a surprisingly high level of compatibility between divers from different agencies when compared to most other adventure sports. It is important to understand, and to avoid, what would constitute negligence; to determine what the duty to take care is and to prepare for it; to identify what resources are available to mitigate and protect against risk; and to prepare in advance what to do if things go wrong.

As always, this article does not constitute specific legal advice. Please feel free to post any comments or enquiries on the DAN website. Note, however, that the web discussions only represent the opinions of those who post them. Neither these discussions nor this article should be interpreted as formal legal counsel or be interpreted as representing the official position of DAN; it is published purely in the interest promoting safe diving.

No Comments


Aqua Pool Noodle ExercisesUnderwater Photographer and DAN Member Madelein Wolfaardt10 Simple Things You Can Do to Improve Your Underwater PhotographyCOVID-19 and Diving: March 2021 UpdateDiver Return After COVID-19 Infection (DRACO): A Longitudinal AssessmentGuidelines for Lifelong Medical Fitness to DiveExperienceFitness Myth or Fitness Fact?The Safety of Sports for Athletes With Implantable Cardioverter-DefibrillatorsCardiovascular Fitness and DivingHypertensionPatent Foramen Ovale (PFO)Headaches and DivingMiddle-Ear Barotrauma (MEBT)O’Neill Grading SystemMask Squeeze (Facial Barotrauma)Sinus BarotraumaInner-Ear Barotrauma (IEBT)Middle-Ear EqualisationAlternobaric VertigoDecompression IllnessOn-Site Neurological ExaminationTreating Decompression Sickness (The Bends)Top 5 Factors That Increase Your Risk of the BendsHow to Avoid Rapid Ascents and Arterial Gas EmbolismUnintended Rapid Ascent Due to Uncontrolled InflationUnexpected Weight LossFlying After DivingWisdom Tooth Extraction and DivingYour Lungs and DivingScuba Diving and DiabetesDiving after COVID-19: What We Know TodaySwimmer’s Ear (Otitis Externa)Motion SicknessFitness for DivingDiving After Bariatric SurgeryWhen to Consult a Health-Care Provider Before Engaging in Physical ActivitiesFinding Your FitnessHealth Concerns for Divers Over 50Risk Factors For Heart DiseaseJuggling Physical Exercise and DivingSeasickness Prevention and TreatmentMember to Member: Guidelines for SeniorsHigh-Pressure OphthalmologyOver-the-Counter Medications
immersion and bubble formation Accidents Acid reflux Acute ailments After anaesthesia Air Quality Air exchange centre Air hose failure Air supply Airway control Air Alert Diver Magazine Alternative gas mix Altitude changes Altitude diving Altitude sickness Aluminium Oxide Ama divers Amino acids Anaerobic Metabolism Animal life Annual renewal Apnea Apnoea Aquatic life Aquatics and Scuba Diving Archaeology Arterial Gas Embolisms Arterial gas embolism Arthroscopic surgery Aspirin Aurel hygiene BCD BHP BLS BWARF Back adjustment Back pain Back treatment Backextensors Badages Bag valve mask Bahamas Balancing Bandaids Barbell back squat Barometric pressure Barotrauma Basic Life Support Batteries Becky Kagan Schott Bench press Benign prostate hyperplasia Benzophenones Beth Neale Beyond Standards Bilikiki Tours Biophysics Black Blood flow Blood thinners Blue Wilderness Blue economy Blurred vision Boat safety Boesmans gat Boesmansgat Bone fractures Bouyancy compensators Boyle's Law Boyle\'s Law Bradycardia Brain Breast Cancer Breath Hold Diving Breath holding Breath hold Breath-hold Breathing Gas Breathing gas contamination Breathing Breathold diving Bright Bank Broken bones Bruising Bubbleformation Buddy Exercise Buddy checks Buoyancy Burnshield CGASA CMAS CO2 COVID-19 Updates COVID-19 COVID CPR Cabin pressure Caissons diseas California Camera equipment Camera settings Cameras Cancer Remission Cancer treatments Cancer Cannabis and diving Cannabis Cape Town Dive Festival Cape Town Dive Sites Cape Town CapeTown Carbon Monoxide Carbon dioxide Cardio health Cardiological Cardiomyopathy Caribbean Carmel Bay Catalina Island Cave diving Challenging Environments Chamber Safety Chamber science Charging batteries Charles' Law Charles\' Law Charles\\\' Law Charles\\\\\\\' Law Charles\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\' Law Charlie Warland Chemotherapy Chest compressions Children diving Chiropractic Chlorophll Christina Mittermeier Citizen Conservation Cleaning products Closed Circuit Rebreathers Cmmunity partnership Coastalexcursion Cold Water Cold care ColdWater Cold Commercial Fishing Commercial diving Commercial schools Composition Compressed Air Compressed gas Consercation Conservation Photographer Conservation photography Conservation Contact lenses Contaminants Contaminated air Coral Conservation Coral Reefs Coral Restoration Coral bleaching CoralGroupers Corals Core strength Corona virus Coro Costamed Chamber Courtactions Cozumel Cristina Mittermeier Crohns disease Crowns Crystal build up Crystallizing hoses Cutaneous decompression Cylinder Ruptures Cylinder handwheel Cylinder valves DAN Courses DAN Profile DAN Researchers DAN medics DAN members DAN report DCI DCS Decompressions sickness DCS theories DCS DEMP DM training DNA DReams Dalton's Law Dalton\'s Law Dalton\\\'s Law Dalton\\\\\\\'s Law Dalton\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\'s Law Danel Wenzel Dangerous Marinelife Dauin island Dean's Blue Hole Dean\'s Blue Hole Deco dives Decompression Illness Decompression Sickness Decompression Stress Decompression illsnes Decompression treatment Decompression Decorator crabs Deep diving Deep water exploration Deepest SCUBA Dive Delayed Offgassing Dental Dever Health Diaphragms Diopter Diseases Disinfection Dive Buddy Dive Chamber Dive Computer Dive Destinations Dive H Dive Industry Dive Instruction Dive Instructor Dive Medical Form Dive Medical Dive Practices Dive Pros Dive Research Dive Safety Tips Dive South Africa Dive Training Dive Travel Wakatobi Dive Travel Dive accidents Dive buddies Dive computers Dive courses Dive excursions Dive exercise Dive experience Dive fitness Dive gear Dive heallth Dive health Dive medicals Dive medicines Dive medicine Dive operators Dive planning Dive procedures Dive safety 101 Dive safety Dive safe Dive skills Dive staff Dive travels DiveLIVE Diveleader training Diveleaders Diver Health Diver Profile Diver infliencers Diver on surface Divers Alert Divesites Diving Divas Diving Kids Diving Programs Diving Trauma Diving career Diving emergencies Diving emergency management Diving fit Diving guidelines Diving injuries Diving suspended Diving Dizziness Dolphins Domestic Donation Dowels Dr Rob Schneider Drift diving Drysuit diving Drysuit valves Drysuits Dyperbaric medicines EAPs EAP Ear pressure Ear wax Ears injuries Eco friendly Education Electronic Emergency action planning Emergency decompression Emergency plans Emergency underwater Oxygen Recompression Emergency Enviromental Protection Environmental factors Environmental impact Environmental managment Equalisation Equipment care Equipment failure Equipment inspection Evacuations Evacuation Evaluations Even Breath Exercise Exhaustion Exposure Protection Extended divetime Extinguisher Extreme treatments Eye injuries FAQ Factor V Leiden Failures FalseBay Diving Fatigue Faulty equipment Female divers Fetus development Fillings Fire Coral Fire Safety Firefighting First Aid Equipment First Aid Kit First Aid Training First Aid kits Fish Identification Fish Life Fish Fit to dive Fitness Training Fitness to dive Fitnesstrainng Fitness Flying Focus lights Foundations Fractures Francesca Diaco Francois Burman Fredive Free Student cover Free diving Free flow Freedive INstructor Freedive Training Freediver Freediving Instructors Freediving performance Freediving Gar Waterman Gas Density Gas consumption Gas laws Gas mixes GasPerformance Gases Gass bubbles Gastoeusophagus Gastric bypass Gastroenterologist Gear Servicing Germs Geyer Bank Giant Kelp Forest Giant Kelp Girls that Scba Gobies Gordon Hiles Great White Sharks Guinness World Record Gutt irritations HCV HELP HIRA HMLI HMS Britanica Haemorhoid treatment Hazard Description Hazardous Marine life Hazardous marinelife Headaches Health practitioner Heart Attack Heart Health Heart Rate monitor Heart fitness Heart rates Heart rate Heart Heat stress Helium Hepatitis C Hepatitus B Hiatal Hernia High Pressure vessels High temperatures Hip strength Hip surgery Hippocampus History Hot Humans Hydrate Hydration Hydrogen Hydroids Hydrostatic pressure Hygiene Hyperbaric Chamber Hyperbaric research Hyperbarics Hypothermia Hypoxia I-52 found INclusivity IdentiFin Imaging Immersion Immine systems In Water Recompression Indemnity form Indian Ocean Indigo SCuba Indonesia Inert gas Infections Infra red Imaging Injections Inner ear Instinct Instruction Instructors Insurance Integrated Physiology International travel International Interval training Irritation Irukandji Syndrome Isotta housing Joint pain Junior Open Water Diver KZN South Coast Karen van den Oever Kate Jonker KateJonker Kidneys Kids scubadiver Komati Springs KwaZulu Natal Labour laws Lake Huron Laryngospasm Lauren Arthur Learning to dive Legal Network Legal advice Legislation Lembeh Straights Lenses Leukemis Liability Risks Liability releases Liability Life expectancy Lifestyle Lightroom editing Live aboard diving Liver Toxicity Liver diseas Liz Louw Lost at sea Low blood pressure Low pressure deterioration Low volume masks Lung Irritation Lung function Lung injuries Lung squeeze Lung surgery Lung MOD Macro photography Maintenance Malaria Mammalian Dive Response Mammalian effect Mandarin Fish Marine Biology Marine Science Marine Scientists Marine conservation Marine parks Marinelife Masks Master scuba diver Maximum operating depth Medical Q Medical emergencies Medical questionaire Medical statement Medicalresearch Medication Mehgan Heaney-Grier Mermaid Danii Mesophotic Michael Aw Middle ear pressure Mike Bartick Military front press Misool Resort Raja Ampat Mixed Gas Mono Fins Mooring lines More pressure Motion sickness Motionsickness Mozambique Muscle pain Mycobacterium marinum National Geographic Nausea Nautilus Ndibranchs Neck pain Neoprene layers Neuro assessments Neurological assessments Nitrogen Narcosis Nitrogen build up Nitrox No-decompression Non-nano zinc oxide Non-rebreather Mask Nonrebreather masks Normal Air North Sulawesi Nosebleeds Nuno Gomes O2 providers O2 servicing OOxygen maintenance Ocean Projects Ocean Research Ocean pollution Oil contamination Open water divers Optical focus Orbital implants Oronasal mask Osteonecrosis Out and about Out of air Outer ears Outreach Overhead Envirenments Oxygen Administration Oxygen Cylinder Oxygen Units Oxygen deficit Oxygen deicit Oxygen dificiency Oxygen ears Oxygen equipment Oxygen masks Oxygen supplies Oxygen supply Oxygen systems Oxygen therapy Oxygen P J Prinsloo PADI Freedivers PFI PJP Tech Parentalsupervision Part 3 Partner Training Perspective Philippine Islands Philippines Phillipines Photographers Photography tips Photography Physical Fitness Physioball Physiology Physiotherapy Pills Pistons Planning Plastic Pneumonia Pneumothorax Poison Pollution Pool Diving Pool workout Post-dive Pre-dive Predive check Pregnancy Pregnant divers Preparation Prepared diver Press Release Preventions Professional rights Provider course Psycological Pulmanologist Pulmonary Barotrauma Pulmonary Bleb Pulmonary Edema Pulse Punture wounds Pure Apnea Purge RAID South Africa RCAP REEF Radio communications Range of motion Rashes Rebreather diving Rebreatherdive Rechargeable batteries. Recompression chamber Recompression treatment Recompression Recycle Reef Chcek Reef Conservation Reef safe Reef surveyors Refractive correction Regulator failure Regulators Regulator Remote areas Renewable Report incidents Rescue Divers Rescue Procedure Rescue breathing Rescue breaths Rescue training Rescue Resume diving Return To Diving Return to diving Risk Assessments Risk assesments Risk assessment Risk elements Risk management Roatan Marine Park Roatan SABS 019 SMB SafariLive Safety Gear Safety Stop Safety SaherSafe Barrier Salty Wanderer Sanitising Sara Andreotti Sardine Run Saturation Diving Save our seas Schrimps Science Scombroid Poisoning Scuba Air Quality Scuba Guru Scuba Injury Scuba Instructor Scuba children Scuba divers Scuba dive Scuba education Scuba health Scubalearners Scubalife Sea Horses Sea slugs Sealife Seasickness Sea Shallow dives Shark Protection Shark Research Shark conservation Shark diving Sharks Shipwrecks Shoulder strength Sideplank Signs and Symptoms Sit-ups Skin Bends Skin outbreak Skin rash Snorkeling Snorkels Social Distancing Sodwana Bay Solomon Islands Sonnier bank South Africa Spinal bends Spinal cord DCS Spinal pain Splits Squeezes Squid Run Stability exercise Standars Stay Fit Stents Step ups Stephen Frink Stepping up Strobe Lighting Stroke Submerge tech Submerged Sudafed Sulawesi Sun protection Sunscreen Supplemental oxygen Surface Marker Buoys Surface supplied Air Surfaced Surgeries Surgery Suspension training Symbiosis TRavel safety Tabata protocol Talya Davidoff Tattoes Tec Clark Technical Diving Technical divng The Bends The greatest Shoal The truth Thermal Notions Thunder Bay National Marine Sanctuary Tides Tips and trick Tooth squeeze Transplants Travel smarter Travel tips Travel Tropical Coastal Management Tunnelling Tweezers Ultrsound Umkomaas Unconsciousness Underground work Underseaa world Underwaater Photos Underwater Photographer Manirelife Underwater floral Gardens Underwater hockey Underwater photographer Underwater photography Underwater pho Underwater University of Stellenbosch Urinary retention. Vaccines Vagus nerve Valsalva manoeuvers Valve stem seals Vape Vaping Vasopressors Vasvagal Syncope Venting Verna van Schak Virus infections Volatile fuels WWII wrecks War stories Washout treatments Wastewater Watchman device Water Resistance Water Weakness Weigang Xu Weights West Papua Western Cape Diving Wet Lenses Wet diving bell Wetsuit fitting Wetsuites Wetsuits White balance Wide Angle Photos Wide angles Wildlife Winter Wits Underwater Club Woman and diving Woman in diving Womans health Woman Women In Diving SA Women and Diving Women in diving Womens Month Womens health Work of Breathing Workout World Deeepst Dive Record World Records Wound dressings Wreck divers Wreck dive Wreck diving Wreckdiving Wrecks Yoga Youth diver Zandile Ndholvu Zoology abrasion absolute pressure acoustic neuroma excision adverse seas air-cushioned alert diver altitude alveolar walls anemia antibiotics anticoagulants antiseptics bandages barodontalgia bent-over barbell rows bioassays body art breathing air calories burn carbon dioxide toxicity cardiovascular cerebrospinal fluid cervical spine checklist chemo port children child chronic obstructive pulmonary disease clearances closed circuit scuba corrective lenses currents cuts dead lift decompression algorithms decongestants decongestion dehydration dive injuries dive medicing dive ready child dive reflex dive tribe diver in distress diver rescue diver training dive diving attraction doctors domestic travel dri-suits drowning dry mucous membranes dry suits dry e-cigarettes ear spaces elearning electrolyte imbalance electroytes emergency action plans emergency assessment emergency training environmentally friendly equalising equalizing exposure injuries eyes fEMAL DIVERS fire rescue fitnes flexible tubing frediving freedivers gas bubble gas poisoning gastric acid gene expression health heartburn histidine hospital humidity immersion and bubble formation immersion pulmonary edema (IPE informal education isopropyl alcohol jaundice join DAN knee laparoscopic surgery longevity lower stress malaise marielife marine pathogens medical issues medical procedures medical risk assesment medications mental challenge mental preparedness micro-organisims micro minor illness mucous membranes nasal steroids nasal near drowning nematocysts neurological newdivers nitrogen bubbles off-gassed operating theatre operations orthopeadic otitis media outgas pain perforation phillippines phrenic nerve physical challenges pinched nerves plasters pneumoperitoneum polyester-TPU polyether-TPU post dive posture prescription mask preserve prevention proper equalization psychoactive pulmonary barotrauma. pulmonary injury. pulmunary barotrauma radiation rebreather mask rebreathers retinal detachment risk areas safety stops saturation scissors scuba equipment scuba single use sinus infections smoking snorkeling. spearfishing sterilising stings strength sub-aquatic sunscreen lotion swimmers ears tattoo care tecnical diver thermal protection tissue damage toxicity training trimix unified standards upwelling vision impaired vomiting warmers water quality zinc oxide