Sight Search

The Nature of Liability & Diving

In this Blog, we take a look at the foundational legal principles in relation to scuba diving on which any civil claim would be adjudicated: inherent risk, negligence and duty to take care.
 
The recent creation of a legal network for DAN members continues to generate interest and discussion. Many divers and diving businesses have already told us that they are delighted to be able to forward us the really tough questions they never knew who to ask before.

Still, some keep asking us to explain what the actual purpose of DAN Legal Net is. To understand this answer, we must start from the perspective of DAN itself and its role in the diving industry. DAN fulfils a very unique and multi-faceted function in the community it serves: it raises awareness of both the pleasure and the potential hazards of diving, it serves individual divers and diving businesses, and it addresses the needs of the injured as well as those with a duty to serve them. However, DAN is not a statutory or enforcing agency. Therefore, the primary objective of DAN is offering the most accurate, constructive and relevant advice and assistance, irrespective of the circumstances, within the mandate of its mission. Sometimes the assistance may take on the form of transport to a recompression facility. At other times, it might be providing advice on how to best manage the consequences of a diving accident. As such, the goal of DAN’s Legal Net is to provide precautionary and preparatory information on how to stay out of trouble, as a diver and as a diving business, so as to establish a wholesome culture of safety consciousness and shared responsibility, and to provide information on what to do if things do go wrong, so as to encourage fairness and honesty. In summary, the objective of DAN Legal Net is to provide assistance and information of a legal nature in matters related to diving and hence to try to reduce the unnecessary anguish or anxiety that often follows legal issues. The rest is up to the respective parties involved.

DAN Legal Net is intended as a complimentary advisory service to DAN members, whether they are recreational, professional or even business members, to provide the initial guidance or advice as to whether the member is in need of appointed legal counsel. If the DAN legal team advises you to get legal counsel, they will also be able to provide some recommendations (referrals) should you need this.
Who carries the can?
 
As we pointed out in the spring 2013 edition of the Alert Diver, even being a dive buddy has potential legal implications. So, to bump this up a notch, what about the diver training organisations themselves? Where do they stand? How do they relate to South African law? Are they all considered the same under our legal system in spite of the differences in organisational structures and training programmes? How does this affect their respective instructors and trainee divers from a legal perspective? These are not exactly simple questions.

It is certainly true that the respective training organisations differ in a number of ways. However, this does not imply that there are necessarily differential legal implications for each of them. In fact, under South African law, the legal principles are common in all matters. Therefore, if you suffer a loss and you (or your estate in the case of a fatality) wish to recover damages, the legal principles would be applied commonly; whether you are driving or diving.

Although not a frequent occurrence, there have been quite a number of law suits associated with diving injuries and damages in South Africa. This is not surprising, as the occurrence of law suits is really a function of “numbers”. As training increases, so do the chances of injuries and, with it, the chances of legal recourse.

So, it remains wise to insure yourself, your equipment or your business in a proper and effective way. But before getting back to the potential differences amongst the training agencies, let’s first explore the foundational legal principles on which any civil claim would be adjudicated: inherent risk, negligence and duty to take care.

Inherent dangers & assumption of risk 

As an adventure sport, scuba diving is remarkably safe. Given all the possibilities for injury, it is truly amazing how few injuries and fatalities actually occur. However, the lull of statistics fades when your own life or business is at stake. Then the odds suddenly jump to 100%. So, what can and should you do to mitigate or manage the inherent risks?

For starters, make sure your life insurance and other long-term insurance do not exclude scuba diving. Other than the injury or accident itself, there is nothing worse than finding out that the life or disability insurance you were counting on excludes coverage for diving. That is not the time to discover the deficiencies in your coverage. Consult your policy or broker about this and, if necessary, complete the documentation necessary to include the type of scuba diving you do in your policy. Sometimes insurance policies are devised without any knowledge of scuba diving. As a result, the policy language and terms may impose contradictory or completely impractical restrictions on diving. Don’t assume, ask! Make sure all your equipment is serviced and up to date. This is especially important if your equipment is used by others, as it would be for a diving business. The same is true for boats, compressors and all other components associated with diving, such as:
  • Practice (training)
  • Preserve (servicing and licensing)
  • Protect (insurance)
Another important perspective to have on recreational diving is that it is just that: recreation! So, in terms of civil liability, it means that the participant is taking on a voluntary, purposeful risk.

To illustrate this, let us use a more extreme example, namely rugby. Part of rugby involves being tackled by your opponent. Although there are rules and restrictions on how this may be done within the context of the game, the reality is still that when two 100 kg objects collide, injuries will happen sooner or later. Yet rugby players would not consider suing the player who tackled them, the coach who trained them for the match or the opponent’s coach who instructed the opponent on how to bring them down. It is part of the voluntary nature of participating in the sport.

Think about cricket: Brick-hard balls hurtling towards you at 130 km/h will bring risks. An even more extreme example is boxing or wrestling, in which you allow yourself wilfully to be hammered or thrown to the ground! These are all voluntary. Of course, there are boundaries in terms of the rules of the sport, but rules do not negate the potential effects of fists or gravity.

As a result, a purely mechanical application of the fundamental “delictual” principles would lead to absurd results. Basically “delictual” principles are those principles that are talked about at nauseam in courts of law. To have a successful claim in court, these are the things your lawyer or advocate needs to prove to the magistrate or judge. The point is this: When a voluntary risk leads to an involuntary injury (by means of an accident, incident, mishap or mistake) there must be evidence of someone either doing what they shouldn’t have (i.e. negligence) or not doing what they should have (i.e. dereliction of duty to take care) before there can be a successful claim. So, this is where things get interesting and more complicated.

Before we get to these two components, let’s quickly deal with a possible objection forming in your mind. Some of you may be asking: “Okay, so what? I am not a lawyer. So, if I need legal advice or legal services, I will find a lawyer just like I would find a doctor to deal with the injury!” That is true; however, the problem is this: by the time you need a lawyer, the damage is already done, the accident or incident has already happened and you are either hurt or being blamed. Now your legal team has to do “damage control”. By way of analogy: Rather than dressing warmly when you should have, you now go looking for a remedy for your runny nose. Remember the old saying? Ignorance of the law is no excuse. And that is exactly why DAN is publishing articles such as these; to assist you, the diver, in preventing the problem rather than having to deal with the consequences that could have been avoided.

So, let’s get back to the earlier “involuntary injury” due to a mishap or mistake. For a mishap or a mistake to result in legal consequences, there needs to be either negligence or dereliction or non-compliance with a duty to take care.

Negligence 

This is the “do” component in the legal equation. In other words, this is when one person causes an injury or damage to another person or their property and the damage is linked directly to that person. If this happens, the person responsible is potentially liable. To break this down a little more: If you can reasonably foresee that your actions could harm your dive buddy, and yet continue with those actions and you do not desist (stop), and your dive buddy is eventually injured or suffers damages, then he/she can hold you liable for compensation.

So, for example, divers are taught not to leave a diving cylinder standing upright. This is a universal rule no matter who trained you. If you mistakenly (i.e. negligently) leave your cylinder upright and the cylinder accidentally topples over and crushes my expensive dive computer, I can hold you liable for the damage and the costs of fixing or replacing it. However, if I was the one who bumped your cylinder over, you would not be liable because there is no direct link between you and the damage the cylinder caused (I bumped your cylinder over). As another example: if I drop my weight belt on your foot and your foot is injured and in need of extensive surgical repair, you can insist on me compensating you for the medical costs. No rocket science there. The same applies in traffic: If you don’t stop at an intersection controlled by a stop sign and accidentally ram my 4 x 4 (though a cheap one, it takes me to those same remote diving spots yours does), you are going to have to pay for it to be fixed.
 
Dereliction of duty to take care  

This is the “not do” component. It is also somewhat harder to define. After all, who determines the duty to care and the non-compliance thereto in unique emergency situations? Still, this component is more likely to lead to a recovery of damages. Put differently, when you are under a legal duty to take reasonable care and you do not do it, then you could be held liable for damages that are directly caused by the breach of that duty. The key elements are “reasonable care” and “directly caused”.

Let’s break that down, starting with directly caused. This means that the damages are linked directly to the failure to perform the reasonable duty. This is called a causal connection. In other words, there must be a connection between the duty not complied with and the damages.
 
Reasonable care is explained as follows: A standard of care that is considered reasonably required in a given situation. In other words, reasonable care is that which is reasonable to expect, given the prevailing circumstances, the diving conditions, your diving experience, your training, your diving qualifications, etc. So, in layman’s terms, the law imposes a duty of care upon those individuals who are presumed to possess “common sense” to perceive the potential dangers inherent in a particular set of circumstances and in a given situation and exercise the same degree of caution as any other individual (a reasonable qualified diver) would. The standard is not one of perfection and it makes allowance for mistakes and errors in judgement. However, the reasonable diver is cautious by nature and, even though they may take calculated risks, they are also more alert to what they are than a non-diver would be. Therefore, in determining a standard of care, our courts take an objective approach,
including the person’s specific knowledge or experience (or lack thereof). However, this cannot be used as an excuse for failure to meet a standard. For example, if an untrained individual were to represent him/herself as a scuba diving instructor (i.e. as having the necessary skills and training to teach scuba diving) and an incident were to occur in which the individual is required to respond, this person would be held to the standard of care expected from an average-skilled instructor in that area, even though he/she was not qualified as such. In other words, he/she will be expected to “measure up” to the standard of the level of practitioner he/she professed him/herself to be whether or not he/she actually possessed the necessary skills.
 
To apply this to the buddy system, consider the following: You are accountable towards your buddy for his/her safety. All diver training organisations teach this, so there would be no basis on which to claim that there is no reasonable duty to take care of a buddy in trouble.

Using this line of logic, some individuals have even gone as far as to say that they prefer solo scuba diving as this releases them from the legal implications or risks associated with buddy diving. Although one might argue this on the basis of experience and sophistication of safety equipment in the case of an expert solo diver who is largely self-sufficient, there remains a possibility of unforeseen loss of consciousness from which a solo diver is unlikely to recover. As they say in the Alps: “The avalanche doesn’t know you are an expert.” Conversely, one might argue that certain types of extreme and deep diving are so hazardous that it may well be better to only jeopardise the life of one individual rather than two. That is, of course, as long as no one is put at risk during the subsequent body recovery or rescue efforts! Well, as a qualified instructor and dive leader, I shall continue to teach and advocate the buddy system. I do not like the idea of diving alone anyway. I prefer to share the joys of diving with someone able to share the memories of the dive. To me, diving is, and remains, a team sport. Which introduces another consideration: How would the principle of duty to take care be applied to children who dive? Training agencies impose age and depth restrictions on children who enter the sport before the age of 14. Depending on the age and diving course, a child may be required to dive with an instructor or at least another adult dive buddy. If the adult were to get into trouble, the child would not be expected to meet the duty of care of another adult. He/she would be held to an age appropriate standard.

What about all those waivers? As mentioned in the previous article, waivers define the boundaries of the self-imposed risk divers are willing to take by requiring that they acknowledge them. Waivers do not remove all the potential claims for negligence and non-compliance with a duty of care. As such, it is left to our courts to ultimately interpret the content of a waiver within the actual context of damage or injury.

Conclusion

So, is there a difference between the respective diver training organisations from a legal perspective? In a nutshell, it is my opinion that each diver training organisation would be judged according to well-established prevailing legal principles. All diver training organisations are very well established and their training procedures are well documented and substantiated. As such, it would be improbable that one diver training organisation would be judged on issues of negligence or duty to take care using the standards, policies or procedures of another organisation. The rules of an organisation would be measured against those prevailing legal principles discussed above. However, there may be differences in the chain of liability between instructors and the organisation, depending on the nature of the relationship. These would simply be measured against delictual principles to measure their compliance therewith. For instance, some organisations have assistant instructors who work under the responsibility of an instructor or instructors may serve under the responsibility of an instructor-trainer. These may add additional dimensions of liability in a legal case. However, and perhaps most importantly, in terms of the core principles of diving safety and training, there is actually relatively little difference between the diver training organisations. Most qualified divers achieve very similar communication, diving and emergency training. There is also a surprisingly high level of compatibility between divers from different agencies when compared to most other adventure sports. It is important to understand, and to avoid, what would constitute negligence; to determine what the duty to take care is and to prepare for it; to identify what resources are available to mitigate and protect against risk; and to prepare in advance what to do if things go wrong.

As always, this article does not constitute specific legal advice. Please feel free to post any comments or enquiries on the DAN website. Note, however, that the web discussions only represent the opinions of those who post them. Neither these discussions nor this article should be interpreted as formal legal counsel or be interpreted as representing the official position of DAN; it is published purely in the interest promoting safe diving.

No Comments


Categories

 2022
immersion and bubble formation 232bar AGE AIDA Accident management Accidents Acid reflux Acute ailments Advanced courses Rescue diver Aerobic exercise After anaesthesia Aged divers Air Quality Air exchange centre Air hose failure Air supply Airway control Air Alert Diver Magazine Algorithms Alice Cattaneo Alice Modolo Alternate Airsources use Alternater Air Source Alternative gas mix Altitude changes Altitude diving Altitude sickness Aluminium Oxide Ama divers Amino acids Amos Nachoum Anaerobic Metabolism Animal life Annual renewal Antarctica Anxiety Apea Apex predators Apnea Apnoea Aqua corps Aquatic creatures Aquatic life Aquatics and Scuba Diving Archaeology Argonaut octopus Argonauts Argon Arrythmia Arterial Gas Embolisms Arterial gas embolism Arthroscopic surgery Aspirin Audible signals Aurel hygiene Australian Flat backed Australia BCD BHP BLS BWARF Baacterial infections Back adjustment Back pain Back treatment Backextensors Backmount CCR Badages Bag valve mask Bahamas Balancing Bandaids Barbell back squat Barometric pressure Barotrauma Basic Life Support Basslets Batteries Beach entry Beached coral Becky Kaga Schott Becky Kagan Schott Beluga whales Bench press Bends Benign prostate hyperplasia Benzophenones Beth Neale Beyond Standards Big Sur Bilikiki Tours Biophysics Black Blood flow Blood pressure Blood thinners Blue Desert Blue Wilderness Blue economy Blue heron Bridge Blurred vision Boat diving Boat safety Bobbit worm Boesmans gat Boesmansgat Bonaire Bone fractures Bouyancy compensators Bouyancy controls Boyle's Law Boyle\'s Law Bradycardia Brain Brandon Cole Breast Cancer Breath Hold Diving Breath hold diver Breath holding Breath hold Breath-hold Breathing Gas Breathing gas contamination Breathing Breathold diving Bright Bank Broken bones Bruising Bubble detection Bubbleformation Buddy Exercise Buddy checks Buoyancy Burnshield CCR CGASA CMAS CO2 COVID-19 Updates COVID-19 COVID CPR Cabin pressure Caissons diseas California Camera equipment Camera settings Cameras Cancer Remission Cancer treatments Cancer Cannabis and diving Cannabis Cape Town Dive Festival Cape Town Dive Sites Cape Town CapeTown Carbon Monoxide Carbon dioxide Cardiac research Cardiaccompromise Cardio health Cardiological Cardiomyopathy Caribbean Carmel Bay Carribean Conservation Catalina Island Cave diving Cave exploration Caves Cave Cenotes Ceotes Challenging Environments Chamber Safety Chamber science Chamber treatment Charging batteries Charles' Law Charles\' Law Charles\\\' Law Charles\\\\\\\' Law Charles\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\' Law Charlie Warland Chemotherapy Chest compressions Children diving Chiropractic Chlorophll Chokka Run Christina Mittermeier Citizen Conservation Citizen sciences Citizen science Clean Air Cleaning products Climate change Closed Circuit Rebreathers Closed Circuit Rebreather Cmmunity partnership Coastal diving Coastalexcursion Cold Water Cold care Cold sores ColdWater Cold Commercial Fishing Commercial diving Commercial schools Common consideration Common understanding Communication Composition Compressed Air Compressed gas Compressor operators Compressors Concussion Congestive heart Faiture Consercation Conservation Photographer Conservation photography Conservation Contact lenses Contaminants Contaminated air Coping with cold Coral Bleaching event Coral Conservation Coral Reefs Coral Restoration Coral bleaching Coral preservation CoralGroupers Corals Core strength Corona virus Coro Coservation Costamed Chamber Courtactions Cozumel Cradiac valvular Cristina Mittermeier Crohns disease Crowns Crystal build up Crystallizing hoses Cubs Cutaneous decompression Cylinder Ruptures Cylinder capacity Cylinder handwheel Cylinder safety Cylinder valves Cylinder weight DAN Courses DAN Profile DAN Researchers DAN medics DAN members DAN report DANTraining DCI DCS Decompressions sickness DCS theories DCS DEMP DM training DNA DReams Daan verhoeven Dahab Dalton's Law Dalton\'s Law Dalton\\\'s Law Dalton\\\\\\\'s Law Dalton\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\'s Law Danel Wenzel Dangerous Marinelife Dauin island Dave McCowan David Doubilet Dean's Blue Hole Dean\'s Blue Hole Deco dives Decompression Illness Decompression Sickness Decompression Stress Decompression chamber Decompression illsnes Decompression ilness Decompression limits Decompression treatment Decompression Decorator crabs Deep Freediving Deep diving Deep water exploration Deepest SCUBA Dive Delayed Offgassing Dental Depth limits Dever Health Diadema Response Team Diagnosis Diaphragms Diopter Discomfort Diseases Disinfection Disorientation Distraction Dive Buddy Dive Chamber Dive Chmber Dive Computer Dive Destinations Dive Destination Dive H Dive Industry Dive Instruction Dive Instructor Dive Medical Form Dive Medical Dive Practices Dive Professionals Dive Pros Dive Rescue Dive Research Dive Safari Dive Safety Tips Dive South Africa Dive Training Dive Travel Wakatobi Dive Travel Dive accidents Dive buddies Dive caves Dive computers Dive courses Dive cover Dive cylinder Aluminium Dive excursions Dive exercise Dive exeriences Dive experience Dive fitness Dive gear Dive heallth Dive health Dive in Africa Dive insurance Dive medical insurance Dive medicals Dive medicines Dive medicine Dive operators Dive opportunities Dive planning Dive procedures Dive safety 101 Dive safety Dive safe Dive skills Dive staff Dive travels DiveLIVE DiveTravel Diveleader training Diveleaders Diver Food Diver Health Diver Profile Diver Travel Diver education Diver infliencers Diver on surface Diver recall Diverover 50 Divers Alert Diversafety Divesites Diving Divas Diving Family Diving Fatalities Diving Feet Diving Helmets Diving Kids Diving Programs Diving Trauma Diving career Diving emergencies Diving emergency management Diving fit Diving guidelines Diving history Diving injuries Diving science Diving suspended Diving Dizziness Dolphins Domestic Donation Doug Perrine Dowels Dr Rob Schneider Drift diving Drysuit diving Drysuit valves Drysuits Dynamic environment Dyperbaric medicines EAPs EAP EMS Ear barotrauma Ear pressure Ear wax Ears injuries Eco friendly Ecowise Education Electronic Embolisms Emergency Action Plan Emergency Planning Emergency action planning Emergency decompression Emergency plans Emergency treatments Emergency underwater Oxygen Recompression Emergency Endurance Entry Envenomations Enviromental Protection Environmental factors Environmental impact Environmental managment Environmental stewardship Equalisation Equalization Equipment care Equipment failure Equipment inspection Equipment significance Evacuations Evacuation Evaluations Even Breath Evironmetaly friendly Exercise Exercising Exhaustion Exposure Protection Extended divetime Extinction Extinguisher Extreme treatments Eye injuries FAQ Face computer Factor V Leiden Failures FalseBay Diving Fatigue Faulty equipment Feet Femal diver Female divers Fenivir Fetus development Filling stations Fillings Fin Foot Fire Coral Fire Safety Fire extinguisher Firefighting First Aid Equipment First Aid Kit First Aid Trainig First Aid Training First Aid kits First Aid Fish Identification Fish Life Fish Fit to dive Fitness Levels Fitness Training Fitness evaluation Fitness to dive Fitnesstrainng Fitness Flying Focus lights Food Footissues Foundations Fractures Francesca Diaco Francois Burman Fred Buyle Fredive Free Student cover Free diving Free flow Freedive Competition Rules Freedive Competiton Freedive INstructor Freedive Safety Freedive Training Freedive computer Freedive rescue procedures Freediver Freedive Freediving Instructors Freediving performance Freediving Fur rade Gar Waterman Gardens of The Queen Gas Density Gas consumption Gas emboli Gas laws Gas mixes GasPerformance Gasblends Gases Gass bubbles Gastoeusophagus Gastric bypass Gastroenterologist Gas Gear Servicing Germs Geyer Bank Giant Kelp Forest Giant Kelp Giant stride Girls that Scba Gobies Golden fish Gordon Hiles Great White Sharks Green sea turtle Greenlings Guinness World Record Gutt irritations HBOT HCV HELP HIRA HMLI HMS Britanica Haemorhoid treatment Hand signals Harry Chammas Havanna Hawaii Hawksbill Hazard Description Hazardous Marine life Hazardous marinelife Head injuries Headaches Health practitioner Healthy Food Heart Attack Heart Health Heart Rate monitor Heart fitness Heart rates Heart rate Heart Heat stress Heliox Helium Gas Helium Hematoma Hemodynamic Hepatitis C Hepatitus B Hiatal Hernia High Pressure vessels High pressure hoses High temperatures Hip strength Hip surgery Hippocampus History Hole in the heart Hood Hot Humans Hydrate Hydration Hydrogen Hydroids Hydrostatic pressure Hygiene Hyperbaric Chamber Hyperbaric Oxygen Treatments Hyperbaric Oxygen Hyperbaric research Hyperbaric treatment Hyperbarics Hypertension Hypothermia Hypoxia I-52 found INclusivity IdentiFin Imaging Immersion Immine systems In Water Recompression Increased pressure Indemnity form Indian Ocean Indigo SCuba Indonesia Inert gas Infections Infra red Imaging Injections Inner ear Instinct Instruction Instructors Insurance policy Insurance Integrated Physiology International travel International Internship programs Internship Interval training Irritation Irukandji Syndrome Isotta housing Itchy Rash Jellyfish Jill Heinerth Joanna Wyrebek Joint pain Journal for Technical Diving Junior Open Water Diver KZN South Coast KZN Karen van den Oever Kate Jonker KateJonker Kenya Kidneys Kids scubadiver Komati Springs KwaZulu Natal LED lights Labour laws Lake Huron Lara Lambiase Laryngospasm Lauren Arthur Learning to dive Leatherback Legal Network Legal advice Legislation Lembeh Straights Lenses Leslie Lwaney Leukemis Liability Risks Liability releases Liability Life expectancy Lifestyle Lighting Lightroom editing Lionfish Live aboard diving Liveaboard Liver Toxicity Liver diseas Liz Louw Loss of consciousness Lost at sea Low Visability Low blood pressure Low pressure deterioration Low volume masks Lumpsuckers Lung Irritation Lung flexibility Lung function Lung injuries Lung squeeze Lung surgery Lung MOD MOzambique diving MPA Macro photography Mafia Island Maintenance Malaria Mammalian Dive Response Mammalian effect Manatees Mandarin Fish Marfan syndrome Marine Biologist Marine Biology Marine Mega fauna Marine Science Marine Scientists Marine conservation Marine parks Marine plants Marinelife Marinescience Markus Dirschi Marlin Marne protecte areas Mask clearing Masks Master scuba diver Matty Smith Maximum operating depth Medical Q Medical emergencies Medical questionaire Medical statement Medical team Medicalresearch Medicalstudents Medication Mehgan Heaney-Grier Membership benefits Menopause Menstruation Mermaid Danii Mesophotic Metotrexate Mexico Michael Aw Microbubbles Middle ear pressure Mike Bartick Military front press Misool Resort Raja Ampat Mixed Gas Mono Fins Mooring lines More pressure Motion sickness Motionsickness Mount Kilimanjaro Mozambique Muck Diving Muscle pain Mycobacterium marinum NDL limits Narcosis National Geographic Nature Nausea Nautilus Ndibranchs Neck pain Neoprene layers Neuro assessments Neurocognitive research Neurological assessments Neuromotor exercises New Caledonia Nichola Bird Nicorette Nicotine Nitrogen Narcosis Nitrogen build up Nitrox No Decompression Limits No-decompression limits No-decompression Non-nano zinc oxide Non-rebreather Mask Non-smoking Nondiving related illness Nonrebreather masks Normal Air North Sulawesi Nosebleeds Nudibranchs Nuno Gomes Nutrition O2 oxygen provider. O2 providers O2 servicing O2treatments OOxygen maintenance Ocean Projects Ocean Research Ocean animals Ocean conservation Ocean mammals Ocean migrations Ocean pollution Oceangate Octopus Oil contamination Olive Ridley Open Ocean Open water divers Optical focus Oral contraseptives Orbital implants Oronasal mask Osteonecrosis Otters Out and about Out of air Outer ears Outreach Overhead Envirenments Oxygen Administration Oxygen Cylinder Oxygen Units Oxygen deficit Oxygen deicit Oxygen dificiency Oxygen ears Oxygen equipment Oxygen kit Oxygen masks Oxygen providers Oxygen supplies Oxygen supply Oxygen systems Oxygen therapy Oxygen treatment Oxygen P J Prinsloo PADI Freedivers PFI PFO PJP Tech Paper Nautilus Paralysis Parentalsupervision Part 3 Partner Training Patent foramen ovale Pemba Island Peri-peri Divers Perspective Peter Lindholm Philippine Islands Philippines Phillipines Photographers Photographer Photography tips Photography Physical Fitness Physioball Physiology Physiotherapy Pills Pilot Whale Pistons Planning Plastic Plimsoll Interface Pneumonia Pneumothorax Poison Polka Dot Bat fish Pollution Pool Diving Pool chemicals Pool maintenance Pool workout Pools Post-dive Potuguese man-of-war Pre-dive Predive check Pregnancy Pregnant divers Preparation Prepared diver Press Release Preventions ProDive Port Elizabeth Professional rights Provider course Psycological Pulmanologist Pulmonary Barotrauma Pulmonary Bleb Pulmonary Edema Pulmonary Hypertension Pulse Punture wounds Pure Air Pure Apnea Purge Quit Smoking Q RAID South Africa RCAP REEF Radio communications Range of motion Rashes Rebreather diving Rebreatherdive Rechargeable batteries. Recompression chamber Recompression treatment Recompression Recycle Red SEA Reef Chcek Reef Conservation Reef Environmental Education Foundation Reef protection Reef safe Reef surveyors Refractive correction Regal Sea Goddesses Regulator failure Regulators Regulator Remote areas Remote islands Renewable Report incidents Rescue Divers Rescue Procedure Rescue breathing Rescue breaths Rescue diver Rescue skills Rescue skill Rescue training Rescue Research Resume diving Return To Diving Return to diving Reuseable items Risk Assessments Risk assesments Risk assessment Risk elements Risk management Risks of Seizures Riviera Maya Roatan Marine Park Roatan SABS 019 SMB SafariLive Safe diving practices Safety Concerns Safety Gear Safety Stop Safety in Air Safety SaherSafe Barrier Salish Seas Salty Wanderer Sanitising Sanne Volja Sara Andreotti Sara Banderby Sara Campbell Sardine Run Sargassum sea Saturation Diving Save our seas Schrimps Science Scoliosis Scombroid Poisoning Scorpion Fish Scuba Air Quality Scuba Guru Scuba Injury Scuba Instructor Scuba children Scuba divers Scuba dive Scuba education Scuba health Scubalearners Scubalife Sea Horses Sea Turtles Sea slugs Seagrass Sealcolonies Sealife Seals Seasickness Seaweeds Seaweed Sea Self Rescue Shallow Water Blackout Shallow dives Shark Protection Shark Research Shark conservation Shark diving Sharks Shipwrecks Shit Happens Shore entries Shoulder strength Sidemount Sideplank Signs and Symptoms Silty bottoms Sit-ups Sixgill Sharks Skills in action Skin Bends Skin outbreak Skin rash Smart phone photography Snells Window Snorkeling Snorkels Social Distancing Sodwana Bay Solomon Islands Sonnier bank South Africa Southern Sea Otters SpareAir Sperm Whales Spinal Bend Spinal bends Spinal cord DCS Spinal dura Spinal pain Spinner dolphins Spleen Splits Sports medicine Squeezes Squid Run Stability exercise Standars Statin Mediction Stay Fit Stay Warm Steel Stefan Randig Stents Step ups Stephen Frink Stepping up Stockton Rush Stonetown Stretch band exercise Stretch bands Strobe Lighting Strobes Stroke Submerge tech Submerged Sudafed Sulawesi Sun protection Sun screen Sunscreen Supplemental oxygen Surface Marker Buoys Surface supplied Air Surfaced Surgeries Surgery Suspension training Swim Fitness Swimmers health SwimmingIn wateractivities Swimming Sylvia Earl Symbiosis Symbiosys TRavel safety Tabata protocol Talya Davidoff Tanzania Tattoes Tec Clark Tech diving Technical Diving Technical divng Temperature Homeostatis The Bends The Cavettes The Titanic Wreck The Wild Coast The greatest Shoal The truth Thermal Notions Thermoregulation Thomas Peschak Thunder Bay National Marine Sanctuary Tides Tips and trick Tonga Tooth squeeze Transplants Travel destinations Travel smarter Travel tips Travel Tropical Coastal Management Tulamben Tullum Tulum. Tunnelling Turks and Caicos Turtles Tweezers Ultrsound Umkomaas Unconscious diver Unconsciousness Underground waterways Underground work Underseaa world Underwaater Photos Underwater Photography Underwater Photograper Underwater Photograpgraphy Underwater Photographer Manirelife Underwater Research Underwater critters Underwater floral Gardens Underwater hockey Underwater imaging Underwater photographer Underwater photography Underwater pho Underwater sound Underwatercommunications Underwater University of Stellenbosch Unresponsive Urchins Urinary retention. VGE Vacations Vaccines Vagus nerve Valsalva manoeuvers Valve stem seals Vape Vaping Vasopressors Vasvagal Syncope Venous gas emboli Ventilate Venting Verna van Schak Veterinarian Videography Vincenzo Ferri. Virus infections Volatile fuels WWII wrecks War stories Washout treatments Wastewater Watchman device Water Resistance Water Weakness Weigang Xu Weights West Papua Western Cape Diving Wet Lenses Wet diving bell Wetsuit fitting Wetsuites Wetsuits White balance Whitetpped Sharks Wide Angle Photos Wide angles Wildlife park Wildlife Winter Wits Underwater Club Wolf Eels Woman and diving Woman in diving Womans health Woman Women In Diving SA Women and Diving Women in Freediving Women in diving Womens Month Womens health Work of Breathing Workout World Deeepst Dive Record World Records Wound dressings Wreck History Wreck divers Wreck dive Wreck diving Wreck exploration Wreckdiving Wrecks Yoga Youth diver Zandile Ndholvu Zanzibar Zoology Zooplankton \ Blennies abrasion absolute pressure acoustic neuroma excision adverse seas air-cushioned alert diver altitude alveolar walls anemia antibiotics anticoagulants antiseptics bandages barodontalgia bent-over barbell rows bioassays biodiversity bloodcells blue carbon body art breathing air calories burn canal blockage carbon dioxide toxicity cardiovascular career developments cerebrospinal fluid cervical spine checklist chemo port children child chronic obstructive pulmonary disease clearances closed circuit scuba coral growth corrective lenses currents cuts cylinder filling dead lift decompression algorithms decongestants decongestion deep dive training dehydration discovery dive clubs dive injuries dive medicing dive ready child dive reflex dive tribe divecomputers diver in distress diver rescue diver training dive diving attraction doctors dolphns domestic travel dri-suits drowning dry mucous membranes dry suits dry e-cigarettes ear spaces elearning electrolyte imbalance electroytes emergency action plans emergency assessment emergency training environmentally friendly equalising equalizing exposure injuries eyes fEMAL DIVERS fire rescue fish watching fitness Balance fitnes flexible tubing frediving freedivers gas bubble gas poisoning gastric acid gene expression health heartburn histidine hospital humidity hypobaric hypoxia immersion and bubble formation immersion pulmonary edema (IPE informal education isopropyl alcohol jaundice join DAN knee lanyard laparoscopic surgery life jackets longevity lower stress lox oxygen level lungs malaise mamalian effect marielife marine pathogens medical issues medical procedures medical risk assesment medications mental challenge mental preparedness micro-organisims micro minor illness mucous membranes multilineage dysplasia myelodysplasia nasal steroids nasal near drowning nematocysts neurological newdivers nitrogen bubbles no tanx off-gassed operating theatre operations orthopeadic otitis media out planting outgas pain parameters perforation phillippines phrenic nerve physical challenges pinched nerves plasters pneumoperitoneum polyester-TPU polyether-TPU post dive posture prescription mask preserve prevention professional emergency responders proper equalization psychoactive pulmonary barotrauma. pulmonary injury. pulmunary barotrauma radiation rebreather mask rebreathers retinal detachment risk areas safety stops saturation scissors scuba equipment scuba sea goddesses single use sinus infections situationalawarenes smoking snorkeling. spearfishing sterilising stings strength sub-aquatic sunscreen lotion swimmers ears tattoo care tecnical diver thermal protection tissue damage toxicity trachea training trimix unified standards upwelling virtual coach vision impaired vomiting warmers water quality zinc oxide